Paul F. Hollenberg

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Silybin, a major constituent of the milk thistle, is used to treat several liver disorders. Silybin inactivated purified, recombinant cytochromes P450 (P450) 3A4 and 2C9 in a mechanism-based manner. The inactivations were time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent. The inactivation of the 7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl-)coumarin O-debenzylation activity(More)
Grapefruit juice increases the oral availability of a variety of CYP3A4 substrates. It has been shown that recurrent grapefruit juice ingestion results in a loss of CYP3A4 from the small bowel epithelium. We now show that the reduction in intestinal CYP3A4 concentration is rapid; a 47% decrease occurred in a healthy volunteer within 4 hr after consuming(More)
Grapefruit juice has been found to significantly increase oral bioavailability of several drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (P450 3A4) through inhibiting the enzymatic activity and decreasing the content of intestinal P450 3A4. HPLC/MS/MS and HPLC/UV analyses of ethyl acetate extracts from grapefruit juice revealed the presence of several(More)
Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination therapy to treat HIV-1. Efavirenz metabolism is catalyzed primarily by the polymorphic enzyme P450 2B6. Metabolism of efavirenz by P450 2B6 and the naturally occurring P450 2B6.4 mutant led to the formation of 8-hydroxyefavirenz. Efavirenz(More)
The modification of the enzymatic activity of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by inhibition, induction, or activation is of great interest to enzymologists, pharmacologists, and chemists who are interested in mechanisms relating to these three effectors of enzyme activity. When the activity of a CYP is modified in vivo in humans, these effects are a major(More)
The addition of peroxynitrite to purified cytochrome P450 2B1 resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of the NADPH- and reductase-supported or tert-butylhydroperoxide-supported 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin O-deethylation activity of P450 2B1 with IC50 values of 39 and 210 microM, respectively. After incubation of P450 2B1 with 300 microM(More)
Expression of human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6 in Escherichia coli was achieved following supplementation of the expression medium with chloramphenicol. The recombinant protein was purified using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetate chromatography and was characterized with regard to its spectral properties and catalytic activities toward typical P450 substrates. The(More)
The cytochromes P450 superfamily of enzymes is a group of hemeproteins that catalyze the metabolism of an extensive series of compounds including drugs, chemical carcinogens, fatty acids, and steroids. They oxidize substrates ranging in size from ethylene to cyclosporin. Although significant efforts have been made to obtain structural information on the(More)
The P450 type cytochromes are responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Although P450-catalyzed reactions are generally thought to lead to detoxication of xenobiotics, the reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that can react with cellular macromolecules leading to toxicity or that can react with(More)
Naturally occurring isothiocyanates, such as benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), are potent and selective inhibitors of carcinogenesis induced by a variety of chemical carcinogens. These effects appear to be mediated through favorable modification of both phase I and II enzymes involved in carcinogen metabolism. The inactivation of rat and human cytochromes P450(More)