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The complete Npro coding sequences were determined for 16 pestiviruses isolated from cattle, pig, and several wild ruminant species including reindeer, bison, deer, and bongo. Phylogenetic analysis enabled the segregation of pestiviruses into the established species bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV), and classical(More)
Pestiviruses belong to the family Flaviviridae, and their genome is a single-stranded RNA of positive polarity encoding one large polyprotein which is further processed into mature proteins. Noncytopathogenic (noncp) strains of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can establish persistent infection. In persistently infected animals, noncp BVDVs(More)
Infections with pestiviruses occur in cattle, sheep, pigs and also in numerous other ungulate species. In the present study, pestiviruses from goat, buffalo, deer and giraffe were analysed at the molecular level; unusual strains from cattle and pigs were also included. A phylogenetic analysis of the respective pestiviruses was undertaken on the basis of a(More)
Currently, the genus Pestivirus comprises the four approved species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Border disease virus (BDV) and one tentative fifth species represented by a single strain (H138) isolated from a giraffe in Kenya more than 30 years ago. To further address the issue of heterogeneity of(More)
Identification and classification of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on the basis of nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have become an important tool to study the epidemiology and to control CSF disease. According to phylogenetic analyses of short sequences from the 5'nontranslated region (150 nt) and the E2 (190 nt), most CSFV isolates from(More)
Molecular epidemiology has proven to be an essential tool in the control of classical swine fever (CSF) and its use has significantly increased during the past two decades. Phylogenetic analysis is a prerequisite for virus tracing and thus allows implementing more effective control measures. So far, fragments of the 5´NTR (150 nucleotides, nt) and the E2(More)
For the important livestock pathogens classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cp viruses are distinguished according to the induction of apoptosis in infected tissue culture cells. However, it is currently unknown whether cp CSFV differs from non-cp CSFV with regard to virulence in the acutely(More)
After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. RNA transcribed in vitro from this construct was shown to direct the generation of infectious BVDV upon transfection into bovine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious BVDV from cloned cDNA a genetically tagged virus(More)
Molecular analysis of a cytopathogenic (cp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate (1741) obtained from a case of mucosal disease (MD) led to the identification of five different viral subgenomic RNAs in addition to a noncytopathogenic (noncp) strain (NCP 1741). For each of the subgenomes, a large internal deletion was found together with an inserted(More)
Proteolytic processing of polyproteins is considered a crucial step in the life cycle of most positive-strand RNA viruses. An enhancement of NS2-3 processing has been described as a major difference between the noncytopathogenic (non-CP) and the cytopathogenic (CP) biotypes of pestiviruses. The effects of accelerated versus delayed NS2-3 processing on the(More)