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Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as(More)
As a result of superior efficacy and overall tolerability, atypical antipsychotic drugs have become the treatment of choice for schizophrenia and related disorders, despite their side effects. Weight gain is a common and potentially serious complication of some antipsychotic drug therapy, and may be accompanied by hyperlipidemia, hypertension and(More)
The identification of protein function based on biological information is an area of intense research. Here we consider a complementary technique that quantitatively groups and relates proteins based on the chemical similarity of their ligands. We began with 65,000 ligands annotated into sets for hundreds of drug targets. The similarity score between each(More)
We identified the previously unknown structures of ribosylated imidazoleacetic acids in rat, bovine, and human tissues to be imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP) and its metabolite, imidazole-4-acetic acid-riboside. We also found that IAA-RP has physicochemical properties similar to those of an unidentified substance(s) extracted from mammalian tissues(More)
The I1-imidazoline receptor (I1R) is a proposed target for drug action relevant to blood pressure and glucose control. The imidazoline receptor antisera-selected (IRAS) gene, also known as Nischarin, has several characteristics of an I1R. To test the contribution of IRAS to I1R binding capacity and cell-signaling function, an antisense probe targeting the(More)
Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with several diseases, including coronary artery disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and spina bifida. However, the mechanisms for their pathogenesis are unknown but could involve the interaction of homocysteine or its metabolites with molecular targets such as neurotransmitter receptors,(More)
The I1-imidazoline receptor is expressed in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) where it mediates vasodepression, and in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells where it elicits generation of diacylglycerol independent of phosphatidylinositol turnover or activation of phospholipase D. We hypothesized that the I1-imidazoline receptor couples to a(More)
Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclero-dane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as(More)
RATIONALE Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort; SJW) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic phytomedicines and great effort has been devoted to clarifying its mechanism of action. OBJECTIVE We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of several pure compounds isolated from the crude extract to gain further insight into the molecular actions of(More)
To examine the effect of hypoxia confined to the ventrolateral medulla we microinjected NaCN into the cat medulla (1.0 mm below the ventral surface) unilaterally and investigated cardio-respiratory changes. We studied anesthetized artificially ventilated animals and measured the electrical activity of phrenic and cervical sympathetic nerves and blood(More)