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PREMISE Bromeliaceae form a large, ecologically diverse family of angiosperms native to the New World. We use a bromeliad phylogeny based on eight plastid regions to analyze relationships within the family, test a new, eight-subfamily classification, infer the chronology of bromeliad evolution and invasion of different regions, and provide the basis for(More)
Rapateaceae and Bromeliaceae each have a center of diversity in South America and a single species native to a sandstone area in west Africa that abutted the Guayana Shield in northern South America before the Atlantic rifted. They thus provide ideal material for examining the potential role of vicariance versus long-distance dispersal in creating(More)
Rapateaceae (16 genera, approximately 100 species) is largely restricted to the tepuis and sandplains of the Guayana Shield in northern South America, with Maschalocephalus endemic to West Africa. The family has undergone extensive radiation in flower form, leaf shape, habit, and habitat. To analyze the evolution of these distributions and traits, we(More)
Cladistic analysis of ndhF sequences identifies eight major bromeliad clades arranged in ladderlike fashion. The traditional subfamilies Tillandsioideae and Bromelioideae are monophyletic, but Pitcair-nioideae are paraphyletic, requiring the description of four new subfamilies, recircumscription of Pit-cairnioideae and Navioideae, the sinking of Ayensua,(More)
We present an integrative model predicting associations among epiphytism, the tank habit, entangling seeds, C₃ vs. CAM photosynthesis, avian pollinators, life in fertile, moist montane habitats, and net rates of species diversification in the monocot family Bromeliaceae. We test these predictions by relating evolutionary shifts in form, physiology, and(More)
Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of nuclear ITS and plastid trnL-F DNA sequence data are presented for the giant genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) and related taxa. Sampling comprises 88 taxa, including 78 of the estimated 1223 species and 29 of the 40 sections previously recognized of Croton. It also includes the satellite genus Moacroton and(More)
Initial molecular phylogenetic studies established the monophylly of the large genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) and suggested that the group originated in the New World. A denser and more targeted sampling of Croton species points to a South American origin for the genus. The nuclear and chloroplast genomes indicate a different rooting for the phylogeny of(More)
The use of information entropy as a quantitative measure of uncertainty for radar resource management and control objectives is explored and applied to issues of current interest. It is seen to be rigorous and objective, and therefore potentially superior to heuristic, rule-based approaches for problems which can be formulated in probabilistic terms. It is(More)
Patients receiving curative treatment for cancer have concerns about reporting pain and using analgesics. These concerns are associated with underutilization of analgesics. To extend knowledge about such concerns to the context of palliative care, the concerns of hospice patients and family caregivers were compared. Within 5 days of admission to hospice, 35(More)
Cancer-related pain not only affects the patient but the family/caregiver as well. The purpose of this study was to examine concerns about reporting pain and using analgesics in a sample of primary caregivers of cancer patients receiving care from a hospice program. The Barriers Questionnaire (BQ), an instrument designed to measure eight common barriers to(More)