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PREMISE Bromeliaceae form a large, ecologically diverse family of angiosperms native to the New World. We use a bromeliad phylogeny based on eight plastid regions to analyze relationships within the family, test a new, eight-subfamily classification, infer the chronology of bromeliad evolution and invasion of different regions, and provide the basis for(More)
Rapateaceae and Bromeliaceae each have a center of diversity in South America and a single species native to a sandstone area in west Africa that abutted the Guayana Shield in northern South America before the Atlantic rifted. They thus provide ideal material for examining the potential role of vicariance versus long-distance dispersal in creating(More)
Cladistic analysis of ndhF sequences identifies eight major bromeliad clades arranged in ladderlike fashion. The traditional subfamilies Tillandsioideae and Bromelioideae are monophyletic, but Pitcair-nioideae are paraphyletic, requiring the description of four new subfamilies, recircumscription of Pit-cairnioideae and Navioideae, the sinking of Ayensua,(More)
We present an integrative model predicting associations among epiphytism, the tank habit, entangling seeds, C₃ vs. CAM photosynthesis, avian pollinators, life in fertile, moist montane habitats, and net rates of species diversification in the monocot family Bromeliaceae. We test these predictions by relating evolutionary shifts in form, physiology, and(More)
Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of nuclear ITS and plastid trnL-F DNA sequence data are presented for the giant genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) and related taxa. Sampling comprises 88 taxa, including 78 of the estimated 1223 species and 29 of the 40 sections previously recognized of Croton. It also includes the satellite genus Moacroton and(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) was used to infer patterns of morphologic and chromosomal evolution in an eastern North American group of sedges (ENA clade I of Carex sect. Ovales). Distance analyses of AFLP data recover a tree that is topologically congruent with previous phylogenetic estimates based on nuclear(More)
INTRODUCTION Fatigue is a prominent symptom in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it has distinctive features; however, there is a need for a robust scale to measure fatigue in COPD. METHODS At baseline, 122 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 52%, women 38%, mean age 66 years) completed a pilot fatigue scale(More)
—False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller-of (SO-CFAR), greater-of (GO-CFAR), ordered-statistic (OS-CFAR), censored cell-averaging (CCA-CFAR), and the homogeneity detector(More)
Croton alabamensis (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) is a rare plant species known from several populations in Texas and Alabama that have been assigned to var. texensis and var. alabamensis, respectively. We performed maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S(More)