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BACKGROUND 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits CYP3A4 and is found in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice. Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates, including cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), but intestinal P-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability. (More)
BACKGROUND Primary blast injuries are produced by the blast shock wave. The critical determinant of survival is pulmonary injury, but acute cardiorespiratory responses to blast exposure are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate these changes. METHODS Twenty anesthetized rats were exposed to moderate blast overpressure, 10 animals(More)
Five groups of 20 slaughter sheep of approximately 37.9 kg liveweight were transported by road for either three, nine, 15, 18 or 24 hours and three groups were not transported, one of them being deprived of food and water for 24 hours. Before and after transport the liveweight and various blood variables were measured and heart rate and behavioural(More)
Two trials, each involving 56 calves less than one month old, demonstrated that the responses of calves to food and water deprivation during 24 hours of transport were similar to those observed in older cattle and lambs. There was increasing utilisation of body reserves and a measurable increase in dehydration, coupled with an increased loss of liveweight.(More)
BACKGROUND The mortality rate from sepsis has improved little over the past two decades. One reason for this has been the use of flawed or inappropriate experimental models in preclinical sepsis studies. METHODS A literature review of animal models of sepsis was performed following a Medline search based on the following medical subject headings: disease(More)
External skeletal fixation is used widely in the management of fractures. Frame configuration is known to affect frame stiffness and, thereby, the local mechanical environment at the fracture site. In previous investigations of the influence of mechanical conditions upon fracture healing, the frames have always been applied so that they influence the(More)
The management of open fractures requires excision of all devitalised tissues, both bony and soft tissue, and failure to do so is likely to increase the risk of infection. This study evaluated the applicability of laser Doppler flowmetry for the objective evaluation of fracture fragment viability in an experimental open ballistic fracture over a period of(More)
The cytotoxic responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes from cottontop tamarins to in vitro restimulation with autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were assayed. Lymphocytes from immune tamarins that had recovered from EBV challenge developed potent cytotoxicity for natural killer (NK) cell targets and for autologous LCL. The cytotoxicity for LCL(More)
Primary thoracic blast injury causes a triad of bradycardia, hypotension and apnoea mediated in part via a vagal reflex. Blast casualties may also suffer blood loss, and the response to progressive simple haemorrhage is biphasic: an initial tachycardia followed by a vagally mediated reflex bradycardia which can be attenuated by micro opioid agonists. The(More)
This study allowed the development of an in vitro model of a high-energy ballistic fracture. Direct fractures are more heavily contaminated than indirect fractures, and the spread of contamination is more extensive than examination of the wounds, particularly the entry wounds, would suggest. The major spread of contamination is along tissue planes, and we(More)