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Three severely retarded boys acquired simple form discriminations errorlessly. Each was first taught to press a red key versus a simultaneously present white key. After this discrimination had been established, black figures were superimposed on the red and white keys. Each correct response affected the next trial by delaying the onset of the red stimulus… (More)
While the origins and developmental course of self-injurious behavior (SIB) remain relatively unknown, recent studies suggest a biological imbalance may potentiate or provoke the contagious recurrence of SIB patterns in individuals with severe developmental disabilities (DD). Evidence from several laboratories indicates that functioning, relations, and… (More)
Line graphs that average response frequency over long periods obscure the major rate changes that indicate sources of behavioral control. A scatter plot can make patterns of responding identifiable and, in turn, suggest environmental features that occasion undesirable behavior. Use of scatter diagrams is illustrated in three cases.
Delayed prompting can produce errorless discrimination learning. There is inherent in the procedure a disparity in reinforcement density which favors unprompted over prompted responses. We used three schedules of reinforcement to investigate the impact of reinforcement probability on transfer of stimulus control. One schedule of reinforcement was equal… (More)
A comprehensive baseline of emotional functioning was established for adults with Down syndrome. Five emotional factors were studied using groups of (a) adults with Down syndrome (n = 30), (b) clinical control subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type (n = 18), and (c) elderly control subjects without mental retardation (n = 25). Results of planned… (More)
Severely retarded boys were taught to respond differentially to lines tilted at 45 degrees and 135 degrees . While all subjects could perform the discrimination, the aspect of the stimulus that controlled responding was shown to differ among subjects.
Relations between self-injuring behavior (SIB), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, and response to an opiate antagonist were examined. Subjects were observed in their residential settings, while behavior was recorded. Blood was collected in the morning, evening, and immediately after SIB. Plasma beta-E was uncoupled from ACTH after SIB… (More)
Self-injuring behavior (SIB) is a life-threatening behavior exhibited by many species, including humans, and has no known cause and no agreed upon treatment. The role of the stress axis in the maintenance of this mysterious behavior was examined in subjects with life-long SIB. Over a 6-year period, 40 hr of direct observations of behavior and the… (More)
Methods were compared for teaching severely retarded boys to discriminate the position of a 0.75-in. black square and to press the response key closest to it. Seven boys were given trial-and-error training; one learned the task. The six boys who did not learn were presented with a program of graduated stimulus changes. All but one acquired the performance,… (More)
90% of women in the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) rehydration therapy program learned the "Seven Points to Remember" about oral rehydration salts (ORS), but only 8% of women in some locations of the program area actually used ORS to treat diarrhea. Experimental analysis of behavior suggests 6 circumstances that may contribute to the absence… (More)