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Endogenous coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, a potent antioxidant, and a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative status. Evidence of oxidative stress was reported in individuals with trisomy 21. In this study, 14 children with trisomy 21 had significantly increased (P < 0.0001) plasma ubiquinone-10 (the(More)
Immunosuppressed Swiss Black mice deficient in surfactant protein A (SP-A(-/-)) and wild-type control mice (SP-A(+/+)) were exposed to Pneumocystis carinii by environmental exposure, intratracheal inoculation, and direct exposure to other infected animals. The frequency and intensity of P. carinii infection were significantly greater in the SP-A(-/-) mice(More)
Over a 7-year period, we analyzed 261 dose regimens of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in an immunosuppressed rat model. These compounds ranged from drugs in clinical use to newly synthesized agents. Drug efficacy was expressed as the magnitude of the reduction in median P. carinii cyst or nucleus counts(More)
DNA fragments isolated from Leishmania donovani ATPase genes were used to analyze the organization and expression of cation transporting ATPase genes in L. donovani, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania braziliensis, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. The ATPase loci in all Leishmania species contained a tandem pair of ATPase genes(More)
Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is available as an over-the-counter dietary supplement in the United States. While its use could be considered a form of alternative therapy, the medical profession has embraced the use of Q10 in specific disease states, including a series of neurologic and muscular diseases. Clinical laboratory monitoring is available for measurement of(More)
Congenitally immunodeficient and immunosuppressed normal mice with naturally acquired Pneumocystis carinii infection were compared as models for testing anti-P. carinii drugs. Among the immunodeficient mice, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (scid), which lack B and T cells, had higher levels of P. carinii pneumonia than did microMT mice,(More)
Guanylhydrazones are cationic heteroaromatic drugs similar to the diamidines which are effective in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and pneumocystosis. On the basis of their antitrypanosomal activity, different guanylhydrazones were selected for evaluation in a rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The most active compounds were the(More)
Pneumocystis carinii is a major opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of morbidity in patients with AIDS. CD4+ cells have been shown to be important in host defenses against P. carinii, but the antigen(s) involved with this response have not been identified. We undertook the present study to determine whether the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of P.(More)
Coenzyme Q10 content, pathology evaluation, and electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme analysis were determined in muscle biopsy specimens of 82 children with suspected mitochondrial myopathy. Data were stratified into three groups: "probable" ETC defects, "possible" ETC defects, and disease controls. Muscle total, oxidized, and reduced coenzyme Q10(More)
The efficacy of antifolate, antiviral, and other drugs was compared in an experimental model of pneumocystosis. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) administered alone in doses of greater than or equal to 60 mg/kg/day was highly effective in treatment and prophylaxis. Low (less than or equal to 15 mg/kg/day) doses of SMX showed limited, dose-related anti-Pneumocystis(More)