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  • P E Spector
  • 1985
The development of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), a nine-subscale measure of employee job satisfaction applicable specifically to human service, public, and nonprofit sector organizations, is described. The item selection, item analysis, and determination of the final 36-item scale are also described, and data on reliability and validity and the(More)
Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain(More)
The effects of cross-training (presence vs. absence) and workload (high vs. low) on team processes, communication, and task performance were examined. Eighty male undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four training conditions: cross-training, low workload; cross-training, high workload; no cross-training, low workload; and no(More)
The differential impact of conflict with supervisors and coworkers on the target of counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) was investigated using multiple data sources. The mediating role of negative emotions was also tested using an emotion-centered model of CWB. Data were obtained from 133 dyads (incumbents plus a coworker) of full-time working(More)
Interpretation of observed relations between job stressors and job strains in cross-sectional surveys is often ambiguous because of possible 3rd variables (both stable background factors, such as personality, and transitory occasion factors, such as mood). In this longitudinal study, negative affectivity (NA) and strains were assessed both in college and(More)
The extent to which negative affectivity (NA), the tendency to experience a wide range of negative emotions, inflated correlations between chronic job stressors and strains was examined in this study. NA was found to account for a large proportion of shared variance between stressors and physical strains (as indicated by absence, doctor visits, and physical(More)
Prior research linking job stressors to psychological strains has been limited to a small number of emotional reactions. This article describes research linking job stressors to a wide range of affective states at work. In Study 1, a multidimensional scaling procedure was used on a matrix of similarity judgments by 51 employees of 56 job-related affective(More)
Gender differences in job stress were investigated, collecting both qualitative (stressful incidents at work) and quantitative (rating scales of commonly experienced job stressors and strains) data from a sample of university employees. Content analyses of the qualitative data revealed 5 major job stressors, 5 major psychological strains, and 4 major(More)
Previous research has clearly shown that work stressors are positively related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Most of these studies, however, used cross-sectional designs, which limits insight into the direction of effects. Nevertheless, it has been assumed that work stressors have a causal effect on CWB, but the role of CWB as an antecedent of(More)