Paul E. Spector

Learn More
Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain(More)
The development of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), a nine-subscale measure of employee job satisfaction applicable specifically to human service, public, and nonprofit sector organizations, is described. The item selection, item analysis, and determination of the final 36-item scale are also described, and data on reliability and validity and the(More)
It has become widely accepted that correlations between variables measured with the same method, usually self-report surveys, are inflated due to the action of common method variance (CMV), despite a number of sources that suggest the problem is overstated. The author argues that the popular position suggesting CMV automatically affects variables measured(More)
Prior research linking job stressors to psychological strains has been limited to a small number of emotional reactions. This article describes research linking job stressors to a wide range of affective states at work. In Study 1, a multidimensional scaling procedure was used on a matrix of similarity judgments by 51 employees of 56 job-related affective(More)
In 1987 Watson, Pennebaker, and Folger wrote an in ̄uential paper in which they noted the potential importance of negative a€ectivity (NA) in job stress research, going so far as to suggest the provocative hypothesis that NA biased self-reports of most job stressors (and other measures of work conditions) and job strains. A number of concerned researchers,(More)
Relations among job stressors, perceived justice, negative emotional reactions to work, counterproductive work behavior (CWB), autonomy, and affective traits were investigated. Participants representing a wide variety of jobs across many organizations were surveyed both inside and outside a university setting. Results were consistent with a theoretical job(More)
The extent to which negative affectivity (NA), the tendency to experience a wide range of negative emotions, inflated correlations between chronic job stressors and strains was examined in this study. NA was found to account for a large proportion of shared variance between stressors and physical strains (as indicated by absence, doctor visits, and physical(More)
OBJECTIVES This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. DESIGN A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. DATA SOURCES A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report(More)
Previous research has clearly shown that work stressors are positively related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Most of these studies, however, used cross-sectional designs, which limits insight into the direction of effects. Nevertheless, it has been assumed that work stressors have a causal effect on CWB, but the role of CWB as an antecedent of(More)
This survey study of 176 participants from eight customer service organizations investigated how individual factors moderate the impact of emotional labor strategies on employee well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender and autonomy were significant moderators of the relationships between emotional labor strategies and the personal(More)