Paul E. Hardin

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The Drosophila circadian clock consists of two interlocked transcriptional feedback loops. In one loop, dCLOCK/CYCLE activates period expression, and PERIOD protein then inhibits dCLOCK/CYCLE activity. dClock is also rhythmically transcribed, but its regulators are unknown. vrille (vri) and Par Domain Protein 1 (Pdp1) encode related transcription factors(More)
Mutations in the period (per) gene of Drosophila melanogaster affect both circadian and ultradian rhythms. Levels of per gene product undergo circadian oscillation, and it is now shown that there is an underlying oscillation in the level of per RNA. The observations indicate that the cycling of per-encoded protein could result from per RNA cycling, and that(More)
We show that a thermosensitive splicing event in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA from the period (per) gene plays an important role in how a circadian clock in Drosophila adapts to seasonally cold days (low temperatures and short day lengths). The enhanced splicing of this intron at low temperatures advances the steady state phases of the per mRNA(More)
Daily rhythms in behavior, physiology and metabolism are controlled by endogenous circadian clocks. At the heart of these clocks is a circadian oscillator that keeps circadian time, is entrained by environmental cues such as light and activates rhythmic outputs at the appropriate time of day. Genetic and molecular analyses in Drosophila have revealed(More)
Drosophila Clock (dClk) is rhythmically expressed, with peaks in mRNA and protein (dCLK) abundance early in the morning. dClk mRNA cycling is shown here to be regulated by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM)-mediated release of dCLK- and CYCLE (CYC)-dependent repression. Lack of both PER-TIM derepression and dCLK-CYC repression results in high levels of dClk mRNA,(More)
The ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of the Drosophila brain that express the period (per) and pigment dispersing factor (pdf) genes play a major role in the control of circadian activity rhythms. A new P-gal4 enhancer trap line is described that is mostly expressed in the LNvs This P-gal4 line was used to ablate the LNvs by using the pro-apoptosis gene bax,(More)
In Drosophila melanogaster four circadian clock proteins termed PERIOD (PER), TIMELESS (TIM), dCLOCK (dCLK), and CYCLE (CYC/dBMAL1) function in a transcriptional feedback loop that is a core element of the oscillator mechanism. dCLK and CYC are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are(More)
The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas(More)
Transgenic flies carrying a 7.2 kb piece of DNA from the period (per) gene were analyzed for the presence of circadian locomotor activity rhythms and fluctuations of per-encoded mRNA and protein. The 5' end of this genomic fragment is within the first intron, which precedes the coding region. This promotorless fragment could rescue circadian behavioral(More)
Transcriptional activation by CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers and repression by PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) heterodimers are essential for circadian oscillator function in Drosophila. PER-TIM was previously found to interact with CLK-CYC to repress transcription, and here we show that this interaction inhibits binding of CLK-CYC to E-box regulatory(More)