Paul E. Belcher

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A full understanding of the proteome will require ligands to all of the proteins encoded by genomes. While antibodies represent the principle affinity reagents used to bind proteins, their limitations have created a need for new ligands to large numbers of proteins. Here we propose a general concept to obtain protein affinity reagents that avoids animal(More)
Three advances necessary to bring dolastatin 16 (1) into full-scale preclinical development as an anticancer drug have been accomplished. The X-ray crystal structure of dolastatin 16 has been solved, which allowed stereoselective syntheses of its two new amino acid units, dolamethylleuine (Dml) and dolaphenvaline (Dpv), to be completed. The X-ray crystal(More)
BACKGROUND There is a pressing need for high-affinity protein binding ligands for all proteins in the human and other proteomes. Numerous groups are working to develop protein binding ligands but most approaches develop ligands using the same strategy in which a large library of structured ligands is screened against a protein target to identify a(More)
One approach to prepare protein binding ligands is to join two low-affinity ligands that bind different sites on the target protein to create a high-affinity bivalent ligand. This typically requires some knowledge of the ligand binding site and requires exquisite orientation of the ligands in order to achieve maximum binding affinity. Here, we explored the(More)
We report a high-throughput two-dimensional microarray-based screen, incorporating both target binding intensity and off-rate, which can be used to analyze thousands of compounds in a single binding assay. Relative binding intensities and time-resolved dissociation are measured for labeled tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) bound to a peptide(More)
BACKGROUND There is a significant need for affinity reagents with high target affinity/specificity that can be developed rapidly and inexpensively. Existing affinity reagent development approaches, including protein mutagenesis, directed evolution, and fragment-based design utilize large libraries and/or require structural information thereby adding time(More)
The first 23-step total synthesis of the cyclodepsipeptide dolastatin 16 (1) has been achieved. Synthesis of the dolaphenvaline and dolamethylleuine amino acid units using simplified methods improved the overall efficiency. The formation of the 25-membered macrocycle employing lactonization with 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride completed a key step in the(More)
Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world. Noroviruses are a diverse group of nonenveloped RNA viruses that are continuously evolving. This leads to the rise of immunologically distinct strains of the same genotype on a frequent basis. This diversity presents a unique challenge for detection and tracking of new(More)
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