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Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa contain three genetic elements: the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes characteristic of virtually all eukaryotic cells and a 35-kilobase circular extrachromosomal DNA. In situ hybridization techniques were used to localize the 35-kilobase DNA of Toxoplasma gondii to a discrete organelle surrounded by four(More)
Malaria parasites, and other parasitic protists of the Phylum Apicomplexa, carry a plastid-like genome with greatly reduced sequence complexity. This 35 kb DNA circle resembles the plastid DNA of non-photosynthetic plants, encoding almost exclusively components involved in gene expression. The complete gene map described here includes genes for duplicated(More)
Sphingolipids are ubiquitous and essential components of eukaryotic membranes, particularly the plasma membrane. The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of these lipid species is conserved up to the formation of sphinganine. However, a divergence is apparent in the synthesis of complex sphingolipids. In animal cells, ceramide is a substrate for(More)
The surface of the protozoan parasite Leishmania is unusual in that it consists predominantly of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoconjugates and proteins. Additionally, a family of hydrophilic acylated surface proteins (HASPs) has been localized to the extracellular face of the plasma membrane in infective parasite stages. These surface(More)
SRY, the testis determining gene, encodes a member of a family of DNA binding proteins characterized by an amino acid sequence motif known as the HMG box. Using degenerate primers and the polymerase chain reaction, we have isolated SRY-related cDNAs from adult murine testis RNA. One of these, Sox-5, encodes a 43 kDa HMG-box protein with similarities to(More)
From a panel of nine inbred mice strains intranasally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 2 strain, BALB/c mice were resistant and CBA/Ca and SJL mice were susceptible to infection. Further investigation revealed that BALB/c mice were able to prevent proliferation of pneumococci in the lungs and blood, whereas CBA/Ca mice showed no bacterial(More)
Sphingolipids are structural components of the eukaryotic plasma membrane that are involved, together with cholesterol, in the formation of lipid microdomains (rafts). Additionally, sphingolipid metabolites have been shown to modulate a wide variety of cellular events, including differentiation and apoptosis. To investigate the role of de novo sphingolipid(More)
Debugging is an important skill for novice programmers to acquire. Error messages help novices to locate and correct errors, but compiler messages are frequently inadequate. We have developed a system that provides enhanced error messages, including concrete examples that illustrate the kind of error that has occurred and how that kind of error could be(More)