5 1. Introduction 7 2. Abstract In the period between the floating of sterling in June 1972 and the Bank of England receiving operational independence in May 1997, UK monetary policy went through several regimes, including: the early 1970s, when monetary policy was subordinate to incomes policy as the primary weapon against inflation; £M3 targeting in the… (More)
The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Bank of England. The authors would like to thank two anonymous referees,
BACKGROUND There is indirect evidence that T cell responses can control the metastatic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, an enrichment of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) has also been documented. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether CRC promotes Treg activity and how this influences anti-tumour immune responses and disease progression. … (More)
easing is something aberrant. I adhere to that nomenclature here. I begin by sketching the conceptual basis for quantitative easing: why it might be appropriate and how it is supposed to work. I then turn to the Fed's entrance strategy—which is presumably in the past, and then to the Fed's exit strategy— which is still mostly in the future. Both strategies… (More)
The views are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Bank of England. We have benefited from earlier joint work with Charles Nolan and Norbert Janssen, and from the comments of The Bank of England's working paper series is externally refereed.
BACKGROUND We examined the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) risk factors in the emergency medical unit, generated a modified risk assessment tool and tested its ability to predict AKI. METHODS A total of 1196 patients admitted to medical admission units were assessed for patient-associated AKI risk factors. Subsequently, 898 patients were assessed… (More)
This paper links two existing but separate literatures. Measures of the markup, inflation and relative price variability (RPV) from annual and quarterly US and UK data are used to examine the relationships among the variables. The results show that two long-run relationships can be identified from the data: a negative relationship between inflation and the… (More)
The views are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Bank of England. We thank Turkey and the Bank of England for helpful comments on this paper. We have also benefited from a sight of unpublished work by and discussions with Nicoletta Batini. The Bank of England's working paper series is externally refereed.