Paul D. Hale

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The rate of overflow and disappearance of dopamine from the extracellular fluid of the rat striatum has been measured during neuronal stimulation. Overflow of dopamine was induced by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle with biphasic pulse trains. The instantaneous concentration of dopamine was measured with a Nafion-coated, carbon fiber(More)
In this paper, a method of correcting both random and systematic timebase errors using measurements of only two quadrature sinusoids made simultaneously with a waveform of interest is described. The authors estimate the fundamental limits to the procedure due to additive noise and sampler jitter and demonstrate the procedure with some actual measurements.
To assess the suitability of bismuth germanate as an electro-optic material for high precision applications, we have confirmed and extended previous data on its refractive index, electro-optic tensor element r(41), and thermal expansion coefficient. In addition, we have measured the thermo-optic coefficient dn/dT, the temperature dependence of the(More)
We develop a covariance-matrix-based uncertainty analysis for vector-network-analyzer (VNA) scattering-parameter measurements. The covariance matrix not only captures all of the measurement uncertainties of the scattering-parameter measurements, but also the statistical correlations between them. This allows the uncertainties of VNA scattering-parameter(More)
The fundamental starting point for the analysis of all two-state waveforms is the determination of the lowand highstate levels. This is a two-step process. First, the data are grouped into points belonging to each state, and second, the value of each state is determined from the group mean, the mode, the median, or some other statistic. Once the state(More)
We develop and apply frequencydomain mismatch corrections to a temporal electro-optic sampling system. We use these corrections to characterize the magnitude and phase of electrical sources that are physically far removed from the point at which the electrooptic sampling system measures voltage waveforms. We demonstrate the technique by determining the(More)