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African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to one of eight nominal waterborne concentrations including 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 25 microg/L atrazine, 0.005% ethanol (EtOH), or 0.1mg/L estradiol (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) containing 0.005% EtOH. Frogs were exposed from 72 h posthatch until 2--3 months postmetamorphosis via a 3-day static renewal(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants. The structurally related hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) occur in precipitation, surface water, wildlife, and humans. The formation of OH-PBDEs in wildlife and humans is of considerable concern due to their greater toxicities relative to PBDEs(More)
The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 microg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 microg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2),(More)
Gene expression profiles show considerable promise for the evaluation of the toxic potential of environmental contaminants. For example, any alterations in the pathways of steroid synthesis or breakdown have the potential to Cause endocrine disruption. Therefore monitoring these pathways can provide information relative to a chemical's ability to impact(More)
The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus influenzae contains sialylated glycoforms, and a sialyltransferase, Lic3A, has been previously identified. We report evidence for two additional sialyltransferases, SiaA, and LsgB, that affect N-acetyllactosamine containing glycoforms. Mutations in genes we have designated siaA and lsgB affected only the(More)
The present studies were undertaken to evaluate the utility of the H295R system as an in vitro assay to assess the potential of chemicals to modulate steroidogenesis. The effects of four model chemicals on the expression of ten steroidogenic genes and on the production of three steroid hormones were examined. Exposures with individual model chemicals as(More)
Embryos of the green frog (Rana clamitans) were collected from the field and exposed to 1 of 6 water-borne treatments for 273 d (mid July 2001 to mid April 2002). The treatments were 0, 10, or 25 microg/L atrazine, 0.005% ethanol (EtOH), or 0.1 mg/L estradiol or dihydrotestosterone carried in 0.005% EtOH. Treatments were applied in a static renewal system(More)
In 1990, a portion of the Kalamazoo River in Michigan, USA, was designated a Superfund site because of the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment and floodplain soils. During a four-year period from 2000 to 2003, several avian species were monitored for reproductive effects and concentrations of PCBs in tissues attributed to food chain(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Early soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) such as 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) are effective anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents in various animal models. However, their poor metabolic stability and limited water solubility make them difficult to use pharmacologically. Here we present the(More)