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Abnormal central dopamine (DA) neurotransmission has been implicated in the impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that a pharmacological challenge with methylphenidate (MP) at a therapeutic dose increases extracellular DA concentrations in proportion to the severity of these specific(More)
The trapping of decarboxylation products of radiolabelled dopa analogs in living human brain occurs as a function of the activity of dopa decarboxylase. This enzyme is now understood to regulate, with tyrosine hydroxylase, cerebral dopamine synthesis. Influx into brain of dopa decarboxylase substrates such as 6-[18F]fluorodopa and beta-[11C]dopa measured by(More)
Sensation seeking is a core personality trait that declines with age in both men and women, as do also both density and availability of the dopamine D(2/3) receptors in striatum and cortical regions. In contrast, novelty seeking at a given age relates inversely to dopamine receptor availability. The simplest explanation of these findings is an(More)
The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has increased considerably in recent years. The pig brain, which is(More)
Potentiation of serotonergic transmission increases cognitive flexibility, but can in other circumstances increase sensitivity to stressful environmental cues. The personality trait Openness to Experience reflects and is also associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. We hypothesized that the personality trait has an association with a biomarker(More)
According to the ternary complex model of G-protein linkage to receptors, agonists increase the affinity of the receptors for the G protein. The model predicts that an endogenous agonist's constant of inhibition toward an agonist radioligand is lower than that toward an antagonistic radioligand. The authors hypothesized that competition from endogenous(More)
Previous ex vivo studies have provided indirect evidence that the dopamine (DA) metabolite 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) may be a useful index of DA release in vivo. In the present study, in vivo microdialysis was utilized to assess directly the relationship between extracellular DA and 3-MT in the striatum of rats following a variety of pharmacological(More)
Dopamine transmission remains central to our understanding of neurocircuitry models of schizophrenia, and to the mechanism of action of typical antipsychotic medications, which preferentially block D (2)-receptors in striatum. In cerebral cortex, D (2)- and D (1)- mediated transmission modulates information processing, and tunes the activity of the(More)
The hypofrontality theory of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia predicts that cortical lesions cause psychosis. During a search for abnormalities of catecholaminergic neurotransmission in patients with complex partial seizures of the mesial temporal lobe, we discovered an increase of the rate of metabolism of an exogenous dopa tracer (6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa)(More)
Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies with levodopa analogs have revealed a modestly increased capacity for dopamine synthesis in the striatum of patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy age-matched control subjects. We hypothesized that not just the synthesis but also the turnover of radiolabeled dopamine is elevated in patients. To(More)