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L: -FMAU [1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta,L-arabinofuranosyl) uracil] has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus replication in cell culture and duck hepatitis B virus replication in acutely infected Peking ducks. The woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and its natural host, the Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax),(More)
Woodchucks chronically infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) were treated with the antiviral drug 1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-uracil (L-FMAU) or placebo for 32 weeks. Half the woodchucks in each group then received four injections of surface antigen vaccine during the next 16 weeks. Vaccination alone elicited a low-level(More)
OBJECTIVE A rational treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might involve the modulation of immunity after the reduction of viremia and antigenemia. This strategy was tested in woodchucks chronically infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) by combining antiviral treatment with(More)
This review describes the woodchuck and the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and disease in humans. The establishment of woodchuck breeding colonies, and use of laboratory-reared woodchucks infected with defined WHV inocula, have enhanced our understanding of the(More)
Cellular immune responses to hepatitis B virus (HBV) play an important role in the resolution of acute infection. They also influence the course of chronic infection and disease but are inadequate to completely clear the infection. Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection of the woodchuck can provide a model to study these processes. Lymphocyte responses(More)
Emtricitabine [(-)FTC] [(-)-beta-2', 3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine] has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in cell culture, with a potency and selectivity that are essentially identical to those of lamivudine. The antiviral activity of oral administration of (-)FTC against WHV replication in chronically infected(More)
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide analogue approved for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. TDF also has been shown in vitro to inhibit replication of wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV) and lamivudine-resistant HBV mutants and to inhibit lamivudine-resistant HBV in patients and HBV in patients coinfected with the HIV.(More)
At least four distinct epitopes are described on the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (VP70) using 13 monoclonal antibodies in solid-phase competitive binding studies. Two, and possibly three, fusion-inhibiting epitopes, one non-fusion-inhibiting neutralizing epitope, and one non-neutralizing epitope are described. All but the latter site(More)
Twenty-five monoclonal antibodies (Mab) to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and two to hepatitis B virus were inoculated intravenously into mice. Twenty-four hours later the mice were challenged intranasally with RSV. Eleven of 14 Mab against fusion protein and four out of six Mab against a larger glycoprotein (GP84) significantly reduced the titre of RSV(More)
The emergence in vaccinated individuals of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants with amino acid substitutions within the a determinant of the surface protein has raised the possibility that such variants represent neutralization escape mutants. We previously demonstrated that one such mutant HBV, strain AS, with an arginine substituted for glycine at surface(More)