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This review describes the woodchuck and the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and disease in humans. The establishment of woodchuck breeding colonies, and use of laboratory-reared woodchucks infected with defined WHV inocula, have enhanced our understanding of the(More)
Twenty-five monoclonal antibodies (Mab) to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and two to hepatitis B virus were inoculated intravenously into mice. Twenty-four hours later the mice were challenged intranasally with RSV. Eleven of 14 Mab against fusion protein and four out of six Mab against a larger glycoprotein (GP84) significantly reduced the titre of RSV(More)
Woodchucks chronically infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) were treated with the antiviral drug 1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl)-uracil (L-FMAU) or placebo for 32 weeks. Half the woodchucks in each group then received four injections of surface antigen vaccine during the next 16 weeks. Vaccination alone elicited a low-level(More)
Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) isolated from woodchucks chronically infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) carry low levels of nonreplicating WHV DNA. When PBLs from chronic carrier woodchucks were activated in culture with the generalized mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), WHV DNA replication was initiated in cells obtained from one of three(More)
Emtricitabine [(-)FTC] [(-)-beta-2', 3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine] has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in cell culture, with a potency and selectivity that are essentially identical to those of lamivudine. The antiviral activity of oral administration of (-)FTC against WHV replication in chronically infected(More)
The emergence in vaccinated individuals of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants with amino acid substitutions within the a determinant of the surface protein has raised the possibility that such variants represent neutralization escape mutants. We previously demonstrated that one such mutant HBV, strain AS, with an arginine substituted for glycine at surface(More)
Adult woodchucks (Marmota monax) chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) were treated orally with lamivudine (15 mg/kg per day) for 57 weeks. After 20 weeks of treatment a 2-3 log reduction in serum WHV DNA was detected. Serum titers of WHV then increased gradually, in the presence of lamivudine treatment, reaching pre-treatment values by(More)
All mammalian hepadnaviruses possess a gene, termed X, that encodes a protein capable of transactivating virus gene expression. The X gene overlaps the polymerase and precore genes as well as two newly identified open reading frames (ORFs) termed ORF5 and ORF6. In this investigation, we examined whether ORF5, ORF6, and the X gene were important for the(More)
At least four distinct epitopes are described on the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (VP70) using 13 monoclonal antibodies in solid-phase competitive binding studies. Two, and possibly three, fusion-inhibiting epitopes, one non-fusion-inhibiting neutralizing epitope, and one non-neutralizing epitope are described. All but the latter site(More)