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Optical technology promises to revolutionize data networking by providing enormous bandwidth for data transport at minimal cost. A key to cost reduction is to increase transparency, that is, to keep a data stream encoded as an optical signal for as long as possible. Wavelength switching increases transparency by allowing different data streams, each encoded(More)
It is well established that physical layer impairments significantly affect the performance of optical networks. The management of these impairments is critical for successful transmission, and may significantly affect network layer routing decisions. Hence, the traditional divide-and-conquer layered approach is sub-optimal, which has led to work on(More)
A SEQUENTIAL in vivo-ini vitr-o model system has been developed for studying carcinogenesis in the rat brain after trans-placental expostire to ethylnitrosotirea Although cultures derived early in the latent period required prolonged passaging before becoming malignant or forming colonies in agar, they exhibited differences in other properties, including(More)
Cultures derived from rat brains at different times during the latent period of brain-tumour induction by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) showed increased plasminogen activator (PA) activity before being able to form colonies in agar. Control cultures from buffer-exposed animals showed neither property at comparable passages. More detailed investigations, using(More)
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