Paul Chastain

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UV-induced DNA damage stalls DNA replication forks and activates the intra-S checkpoint to inhibit replicon initiation. In response to stalled replication forks, ATR phosphorylates and activates the transducer kinase Chk1 through interactions with the mediator proteins TopBP1, Claspin, and Timeless (Tim). Murine Tim recently was shown to form a complex with(More)
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) associates with telomeres and depletion of CTC1 or STN1 causes telomere defects. However, the function of mammalian CST remains poorly understood. We show here that depletion of CST subunits leads to both telomeric and non-telomeric phenotypes associated with DNA replication defects. Stable knockdown of CTC1 or STN1 increases(More)
A novel DNA structure, sticky DNA, is described for lengths of (GAA.TTC)n found in intron 1 of the frataxin gene of Friedreich's ataxia patients. Sticky DNA is formed by the association of two purine.purine.pyrimidine (R.R.Y) triplexes in negatively supercoiled plasmids at neutral pH. An excellent correlation was found between the lengths of (GAA.TTC) (> 59(More)
At any moment during S phase, regions of genomic DNA are in various stages of replication (i.e., initiation, chain elongation, and termination). These stages may be differentially inhibited after treatment with various carcinogens that damage DNA such as UV. We used visualization of active replication units in combed DNA fibers, in combination with(More)
The lengthening of tracts of CTG, CGG and GAA triplet repeats during progression of a pedigree has been associated with more than 12 human genetic diseases, including fragile X syndrome, myotonic dystrophy and Friedreich's ataxia. These repetitive sequence elements have the potential to form alternative DNA secondary structures that may contribute to their(More)
The use of nanoparticles in consumer products increases their prevalence in the environment and the potential risk to human health. Although recent studies have shown in vivo and in vitro toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), a more detailed view of the underlying mechanisms of this response needs to be established. Here, the effects of(More)
Eight human genetic diseases have been associated with the expansion of CTG or CGG triplet repeats. The molecular etiology behind expansion is unknown but may involve participation of an unusual DNA structure in replication, repair, or recombination. We show that DNA fragments containing CTG triplet repeats derived from the human myotonic dystrophy gene(More)
Our previous electron microscopy of DNA replicated by the bacteriophage T4 proteins showed a single complex at the fork, thought to contain the leading and lagging strand proteins, as well as the protein-covered single-stranded DNA on the lagging strand folded into a compact structure. "Trombone" loops formed from nascent lagging strand fragments were(More)
The coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging DNA strands is thought to involve a dimeric DNA polymerase and a looping of the lagging strand so that both strands can be synthesized in the same direction. We have constructed a minicircle with a replication fork that permits an assessment of the stoichiometry of the proteins and a measurement of the(More)
A major challenge each human cell-division cycle is to ensure that DNA replication origins do not initiate more than once, a phenomenon known as re-replication. Acute deregulation of replication control ultimately causes extensive DNA damage, cell-cycle checkpoint activation and cell death whereas moderate deregulation promotes genome instability and(More)