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A novel DNA structure, sticky DNA, is described for lengths of (GAA.TTC)n found in intron 1 of the frataxin gene of Friedreich's ataxia patients. Sticky DNA is formed by the association of two purine.purine.pyrimidine (R.R.Y) triplexes in negatively supercoiled plasmids at neutral pH. An excellent correlation was found between the lengths of (GAA.TTC) (> 59(More)
UV-induced DNA damage stalls DNA replication forks and activates the intra-S checkpoint to inhibit replicon initiation. In response to stalled replication forks, ATR phosphorylates and activates the transducer kinase Chk1 through interactions with the mediator proteins TopBP1, Claspin, and Timeless (Tim). Murine Tim recently was shown to form a complex with(More)
At any moment during S phase, regions of genomic DNA are in various stages of replication (i.e., initiation, chain elongation, and termination). These stages may be differentially inhibited after treatment with various carcinogens that damage DNA such as UV. We used visualization of active replication units in combed DNA fibers, in combination with(More)
The coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging DNA strands is thought to involve a dimeric DNA polymerase and a looping of the lagging strand so that both strands can be synthesized in the same direction. We have constructed a minicircle with a replication fork that permits an assessment of the stoichiometry of the proteins and a measurement of the(More)
The most common chromosomal translocation in cancer, t(14;18), occurs at the bcl-2 major breakpoint region (Mbr) in follicular lymphomas. The 150-bp bcl-2 Mbr, which contains three breakage hotspots (peaks), has a single-stranded character and, hence, a non-B DNA conformation both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we use gel assays and electron microscopy to show(More)
Eight human genetic diseases have been associated with the expansion of CTG or CGG triplet repeats. The molecular etiology behind expansion is unknown but may involve participation of an unusual DNA structure in replication, repair, or recombination. We show that DNA fragments containing CTG triplet repeats derived from the human myotonic dystrophy gene(More)
The lengthening of tracts of CTG, CGG and GAA triplet repeats during progression of a pedigree has been associated with more than 12 human genetic diseases, including fragile X syndrome, myotonic dystrophy and Friedreich's ataxia. These repetitive sequence elements have the potential to form alternative DNA secondary structures that may contribute to their(More)
The use of nanoparticles in consumer products increases their prevalence in the environment and the potential risk to human health. Although recent studies have shown in vivo and in vitro toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), a more detailed view of the underlying mechanisms of this response needs to be established. Here, the effects of(More)
Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) associates with telomeres and depletion of CTC1 or STN1 causes telomere defects. However, the function of mammalian CST remains poorly understood. We show here that depletion of CST subunits leads to both telomeric and non-telomeric phenotypes associated with DNA replication defects. Stable knockdown of CTC1 or STN1 increases(More)
Damaged DNA binding protein 1, DDB1, bridges an estimated 90 or more WD40 repeats (DDB1-binding WD40, or DWD proteins) to the CUL4-ROC1 catalytic core to constitute a potentially large number of E3 ligase complexes. Among these DWD proteins is the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr-binding protein VprBP, whose cellular function has yet to be(More)