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Abnormal elevation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is central to the onset of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metformin corrects hyperglycaemia through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, but its mechanism of action is yet to be fully described. SIRT1 and GCN5 (listed as KAT2A in the MGI Database) have recently been identified as(More)
Sirtuin (SIRT)3 is a mitochondrial protein deacetylase that regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. As chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction are key factors mediating pancreatic beta cell impairment in type 2 diabetes, we investigated the role of SIRT3 in the maintenance of beta cell function and(More)
This review describes recent advances in our knowledge of the regulatory interactions influencing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-regulated genes. We address recent advances highlighting the role of PPARgamma (PPARG) coactivator-1 (PGC-1) and lipin-1 in co-ordinating the expression of genes controlling nutrient handling.(More)
Environmental factors can influence the acute and longer-term risks of developing diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Increasing evidence suggests that these effects can be achieved by modification of metabolic gene expression. These include acute changes in histone(More)
AIMS Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is the rate limiting enzyme for gluconeogenesis, and plays a key role in recycling lactate for glucose production. It is synthesized as two separate isoforms; cytosolic (PEPCK-C, gene code; PCK1) and mitochondrial (PEPCK-M, gene code; PCK2). Previous studies of gluconeogenesis in endotoxemia have focused solely(More)
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD+ biosynthesis, exists as intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) and extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT). eNAMPT, secreted from adipose tissue, promotes insulin secretion. Administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a product of the eNAMPT reaction, corrects impaired islet function in(More)
AIM AMPK activates SIRT1 in liver and skeletal muscle. Impaired circadian function is associated with development of obesity. SIRT1 regulates circadian function and is suppressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese patients. We examined the potential role of AMPK and SIRT1 in regulation of circadian components in WAT of obese db/db mice and in mice fed a(More)
This study examined the protective effect of phenobarbital on kainic acid-induced deficits in acquisition learning. A single kainic acid injection (9 mg/kg i.p.) was administered five days prior to testing using the Morris water maze test. Kainic acid produced deficits in the acquisition of spatial information observed as an increase in latency to a hidden(More)
LXR (liver X receptor) and PPARα (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α) are nuclear receptors that control the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid homoeostasis. Using wild-type and PPARα-null mice fed on an LXR-agonist-supplemented diet, the present study analysed the impact of pharmacological LXR activation on the expression of(More)
A suboptimal early-life environment, due to poor nutrition or stress during pregnancy, can influence lifelong phenotypes in the progeny. Epigenetic factors are thought to be key mediators of these effects. We show that protein restriction in mice from conception until weaning induces a linear correlation between growth restriction and DNA methylation at(More)