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Human innate immunity against most African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma brucei brucei, is mediated by a minor subclass of toxic serum HDL, called trypanosome lytic factor-1 (TLF-1). This HDL contains two primate specific proteins, apolipoprotein L-1 and haptoglobin (Hp)-related protein, as well as apolipoprotein A-1. These assembled proteins provide(More)
The haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes plays a critical role in human innate immunity against these parasites. Localized to the flagellar pocket of the veterinary pathogen Trypanosoma brucei brucei this receptor binds Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 (TLF-1), a subclass of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) facilitating endocytosis,(More)
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes 97% of all cases of African sleeping sickness, a fatal disease of sub-Saharan Africa. Most species of trypanosome, such as T. b. brucei, are unable to infect humans due to the trypanolytic serum protein apolipoprotein-L1 (APOL1) delivered via two trypanosome lytic factors (TLF-1 and TLF-2). Understanding how T. b.(More)
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the causative agent of chronic Human African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, a disease endemic across often poor and rural areas of Western and Central Africa. We have previously published the genome sequence of a T. b. brucei isolate, and have now employed a comparative genomics approach to understand the(More)
BACKGROUND The three sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei are important pathogens of sub-Saharan Africa. T. b. brucei is unable to infect humans due to sensitivity to trypanosome lytic factors (TLF) 1 and 2 found in human serum. T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense are able to resist lysis by TLF. There are two distinct sub-groups of T. b. gambiense that(More)
UNLABELLED Human African trypanosomiasis is caused by two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is found in East Africa and frequently causes acute disease, while Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is found in West Africa and is associated with chronic disease. Samples taken from a single focus of a Ugandan outbreak of T. b. rhodesiense(More)
The bloodstream developmental forms of pathogenic African trypanosomes are uniquely susceptible to killing by small hydrophobic peptides. Trypanocidal activity is conferred by peptide hydrophobicity and charge distribution and results from increased rigidity of the plasma membrane. Structural analysis of lipid-associated peptide suggests a mechanism of(More)
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African Sleeping Sickness in humans and contributes to the related veterinary disease, Nagana. T. brucei is segregated into three subspecies based on host specificity, geography and pathology. T. b. brucei is limited to animals (excluding some primates) throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is(More)
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness in humans and one of several pathogens that cause the related veterinary disease Nagana. A complex co-evolution has occurred between these parasites and primates that led to the emergence of trypanosome-specific defences and counter-measures. The first line of defence in humans and(More)
Human African Trypanosomiasis presenting at least 29 years after infection—what can this teach us about the pathogenesis and control of this neglected tropical disease? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(12). e3349.