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Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here, we describe a bacterium, strain(More)
Prion diseases are considered to be transmissible. The existence of sporadic forms of prion diseases such as scrapie implies an environmental source for the infectious agent. This would suggest that under certain conditions the prion protein, the accepted agent of transmission, can survive in the environment. We have developed a novel technique to extract(More)
In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state. Numerical estimates of the information and entropy reduction are given and discussed in the context of the cell's metabolic activity. We discuss a solution to an apparent paradox(More)
There is now strong evidence to show that the presence of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) mediates amyloid-β (Aβ) neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we probe the molecular details of the interaction between PrP(C) and Aβ and discover that substoichiometric amounts of PrP(C), as little as 1/20, relative to Aβ will strongly inhibit amyloid(More)
of eggs and tadpoles, but not froglet transport 4. Froglet transport has only been reported for females in a single species, the Jamaican cave-breeding frog Eleutherodactylus cundalli 5 , and has either not been observed in New Guinean frogs 6 or has been only briefly described without identification of the species or sex of the caring adult 7. Uniparental(More)
To investigate the transition from non-cancerous to metastatic from a physical sciences perspective, the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) Network performed molecular and biophysical comparative studies of the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast epithelial cell lines, commonly used as models of cancer metastasis. Experiments(More)
The cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP(c)) can exist in membrane-bound and secreted forms. Both forms of PrP(c) can be transported by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons along the optic nerve in the anterograde direction. In this study we determined which part of chicken PrP(c) is required for its anterograde axonal transport within the optic nerve of(More)
Although it has been notoriously difficult to pin down precisely what is it that makes life so distinctive and remarkable, there is general agreement that its informational aspect is one key property, perhaps the key property. The unique informational narrative of living systems suggests that life may be characterized by context-dependent causal influences,(More)
Oxidative stress and misfolding of the prion protein (PrP(C)) are fundamental to prion diseases. We have therefore probed the effect of oxidation on the structure and stability of PrP(C). Urea unfolding studies indicate that H(2)O(2) oxidation reduces the thermodynamic stability of PrP(C) by as much as 9 kJ/mol. (1)H-(15)N NMR studies indicate methionine(More)