Paul C. W. Davies

Learn More
In this paper we discuss the entropy and information aspects of a living cell. Particular attention is paid to the information gain on assembling and maintaining a living state. Numerical estimates of the information and entropy reduction are given and discussed in the context of the cell's metabolic activity. We discuss a solution to an apparent paradox(More)
  • David B. Agus, Jenolyn F. Alexander, Wadih Arap, Shashanka Ashili, Joseph E. Aslan, Robert H. Austin +89 others
  • 2013
To investigate the transition from non-cancerous to metastatic from a physical sciences perspective, the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) Network performed molecular and biophysical comparative studies of the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast epithelial cell lines, commonly used as models of cancer metastasis. Experiments(More)
BACKGROUND Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize(More)
Cellular automata have been useful artificial models for exploring how relatively simple rules combined with spatial memory can give rise to complex emergent patterns. Moreover , studying the dynamics of how rules emerge under artificial selection for function has recently become a powerful tool for understanding how evolution can innovate within its(More)
One of the most remarkable features of the > 3.5 billion year history of life on Earth is the apparent trend of innovation and open-ended growth of complexity. Similar trends are apparent in artificial and technological systems. However, a general framework for understanding open-ended evolution as it might occur in biological or technological systems has(More)
  • 1