Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types. One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells (termed adaptive immune… (More)
Combining immunotherapy with targeted therapy blocking oncogenic BRAFV600 may result in improved treatments for advanced melanoma. In this study, we developed a BRAFV600E-driven murine model of melanoma, SM1, which is syngeneic to fully immunocompetent mice. SM1 cells exposed to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX4032) showed partial in vitro and in vivo… (More)
In recent years, investigators have made significant progress in documenting brain structure and function as it relates to aging by using positron emission tomography, conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, advanced MR techniques, and functional MR imaging. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding physiologic maturation and aging… (More)
It is conceivable that, in the near future, an assay that defines the likelihood of a patient with advanced cancer to respond to immunotherapy based on PD1/L1 blockade will be the initial decision point to select the treatment of patients with any cancer type.
The efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapies in addition to anti-CTLA-4 solidifies immunotherapy as a modality to add to the anticancer arsenal. Despite raising the bar of clinical efficacy, immunologically targeted agents raise new challenges to conventional drug development paradigms by highlighting the limited relevance of assessing standard… (More)
Targeting immune inhibitory receptors has brought excitement, innovation and hope to cancer patients. Our recent work revealed the immunological effects of blocking the CTLA4 and PD-1 immune checkpoints on T cell receptor usage among peripheral blood cells, and further uncovers how the expansion of the T cell repertoire matches the immunotoxicity profile of… (More)
BACKGROUND Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is an aggressive sarcoma with few treatment options. Tumor immune state has not been characterized in MPNST, and is important in determining response to immune checkpoint blockade. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1),… (More)
Combining immunotherapy with targeted therapy blocking oncogenic BRAF V600 may result in improved treatments for advanced melanoma. In this study, we developed a BRAF V600E-driven murine model of melanoma, SM1, which is syngeneic to fully immunocompetent mice. SM1 cells exposed to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX4032) showed partial in vitro and in vivo… (More)