Paul C Snijders

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Physical and electrochemical phenomena at the surfaces of transition metal oxides and their coupling to local functionality remains one of the enigmas of condensed matter physics. Understanding the emergent physical phenomena at surfaces requires the capability to probe the local composition, map order parameter fields and establish their coupling to(More)
The configuration and evolution of coexisting mesoscopic domains with contrasting material properties are critical in creating novel functionality through emergent physical properties. However, current approaches that map the domain structure involve either spatially resolved but protracted scanning probe experiments without real time information on the(More)
A reversible structural transition is observed on Si(553)-Au by scanning tunneling microscopy, triggered by electrons injected from the tip into the surface. The periodicity of atomic chains near the step edges changes from the 1×3 ground state to a 1×2 excited state with increasing tunneling current. The threshold current for this transition is reduced at(More)
Semiconductor surfaces and ultrathin interfaces exhibit an interesting variety of two-dimensional quantum matter phases, such as charge density waves, spin density waves and superconducting condensates. Yet, the electronic properties of these broken symmetry phases are extremely difficult to control due to the inherent difficulty of doping a strictly(More)
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent electronic phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including(More)
Organic spintronic devices have been appealing because of the long spin lifetime of the charge carriers in the organic materials and their low cost, flexibility and chemical diversity. In previous studies, the control of resistance of organic spin valves is generally achieved by the alignment of the magnetization directions of the two ferromagnetic(More)
In this project, I investigated whether the inclusion of frequency dependent selection in genetic algorithms may overcome the problem of " standard " genetic algorithms that often get stuck at local fitness peaks and do not find the global optimum. I have implemented and tested four methods to maintain diversity in the population of a genetic algorithm by(More)
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