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As arterialized blood transits from the central circulation to the periphery, oxygen exits through the vessel walls driven by radial oxygen gradients that extend from the red blood cell column, through the plasma, the vessel wall, and the parenchymal tissue. This exit determines a longitudinal gradient of blood oxygen saturation whose extent is inversely(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body(More)
One of the most important functions of the blood circulation is O2 delivery to the tissue. This process occurs primarily in microvessels that also regulate blood flow and are the site of many metabolic processes that require O2. We measured the intraluminal and perivascular pO2 in rat mesenteric arterioles in vivo by using noninvasive phosphorescence(More)
Understanding of oxygen delivery by the microcirculation has been dominated by the unitary component analysis of Krogh and Erlangen focussed on oxygen transport mediated by single capillaries, oxygenation of tissue as a whole being extrapolated from findings on oxygen exchange in these vessels. This analysis is under revision since capillaries are not sole(More)
Apparent viscosity was determined in vertical glass tubes (ID 30.2-132.3 microns) with suspensions of human red cells in A) serum, B) saline containing 0.5 g/100 ml albumin, C) plasma, and D) plasma containing Dextran 250 at a feed hematocrit of 0.45. Pressure-flow relationships were obtained in a range of pseudo-shear rates (mu) between 0.15 and 250 s-1.(More)
Major experimental and theoretical studies on microcirculation and hemorheology are reviewed with the focus on mechanics of blood flow and the vascular wall. Flow of the blood formed elements (red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells or leukocytes (WBCs) and platelets) in individual arterioles, capillaries and venules, and in microvascular networks is(More)
Vascular geometry and red cell distribution were examined in 133 capillaries by means of intravital microscopy in the cremaster muscle of the pentobarbital-anesthetized hamster. Significant correlations (P less than 0.01) were found between diameter and flow, length and resistance, red cell transit time and flow, and red cell flux and hematocrit. Most(More)
Because of controversy regarding the relationship of cytoplasmic ionized calcium concentration ([Cai2+]) to platelet activation, we studied the correlation of platelet aggregation and ATP secretion with [Cai2+] as determined by 2-methyl-6-methoxy 8-nitroquinoline (quin2) and aequorin in response to ADP, epinephrine, collagen, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and(More)