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OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle mass and physical performance under catabolic versus normal training conditions. MATERIALS/METHODS Mice were divided into four groups (n=10/group): (1) ALT=ad libitum+trained (1 h/d for 3 d/wk); (2) ALTH=ALT+HMB (0.5 g/kg BW/d);(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effects of 16 wk. of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration on age-related changes in functionality and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) determined myofiber dimensions. METHODS Twelve young (44 wk.), 6 middle-aged (60 wk.), 10 old (86 wk.), and 5 very old (102 wk.) male Fisher-344 rat's body composition and grip(More)
Modern international military deployments in austere environments (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) place considerable physiological demands on soldiers. Significant physiological challenges exist: maintenance of physical fitness and body composition, rigors of external load carriage, environmental extremes (heat, cold, and altitude), medical illnesses,(More)
CONTEXT Due to current operational requirements, elite soldiers deploy quickly after completing arduous training courses. Therefore, it is imperative that endocrine and inflammatory mediators have fully recovered. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine whether a short-term (2-6 wk) recovery period was sufficient to restore endocrine and inflammatory(More)
Missions conducted by the U.S. Military during combat involve a multitude of operational stressors that can cause deterioration in physical and military performance of soldiers. Physiological consequences of sustained operational stress include decrements in anabolic hormones, skeletal muscle mass, and loss of bone mineral density. The objective of this(More)
We hypothesized that oxygen consumption ( VO(2)) rises incrementally in very heavy and fatiguing exercise where the slow component gain increases with higher work rates. Eight trained males completed a graded exercise test and bouts of square-wave cycle ergometry at 40% and 60% of the difference between the estimated lactate threshold (LT) and VO(2peak)(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of metabolism during altered energy states. The IGF-I system components respond to prolonged caloric restriction but it is not clear if this system responds similarly to acute caloric restriction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the IGF-I system response to acute caloric(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dynamic stretching on running energy cost and endurance performance in trained male runners. Fourteen male runners performed both a 30-minute preload run at 65% VO2max and a 30-minute time trial to assess running energy cost and performance, respectively. The subjects repeated both the trials after(More)
A single bout of unaccustomed exercise confers protective effect against muscle damage from a subsequent bout of similar activity, that is, repeated bout effect (RBE). It remains unknown whether varying muscle-specific exercise between sessions alters the magnitude of the RBE. This study examined the effects of muscle-specific exercise variation between(More)
OBJECTIVES Soldiers lose muscle and bone density during sustained operations. We investigated the impact of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on bone properties, muscle mass, and markers of skeletal muscle regeneration under simulated military sustained operations. METHODS Male mice were divided into four groups (10/group): (1) ALT = ad libitum + trained(More)