Paul C. Chang

Guang Yang2
Wen-Biao Gan2
Thomas J J Blanck1
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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide that acts through G protein-coupled receptors, exerts neuroprotective effects upon many neuronal populations. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that account for PACAP's trophic effects are not well characterized. Here we have tested the possibility that PACAP uses(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthetics are widely used to induce unconsciousness, pain relief, and immobility during surgery. It remains unclear whether the use of anesthetics has significant and long-lasting effects on synapse development and plasticity in the brain. To address this question, the authors examined the formation and elimination of dendritic spines,(More)
Transcranial two-photon microscopy allows long-term imaging of neurons, glia, and vasculature in the intact cortex of living animals. So far, this technique has been primarily used to acquire images in anesthetized animals. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for high-resolution two-photon imaging of neuronal structures in the cortex of awake(More)
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