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Synapse formation and elimination occur throughout life, but the magnitude of such changes at distinct developmental stages remains unclear. Using transgenic mice overexpressing yellow fluorescent protein and transcranial two-photon microscopy, we repeatedly imaged dendritic spines on the apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. In young adolescent(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide that acts through G protein-coupled receptors, exerts neuroprotective effects upon many neuronal populations. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that account for PACAP's trophic effects are not well characterized. Here we have tested the possibility that PACAP uses(More)
Biochemical and genetic studies place the amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the center stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Although mutations in the APP gene lead to dominant inheritance of familial AD, the normal function of APP remains elusive. Here, we report that the APP family of proteins plays an essential role in the development of(More)
Invited Paper Printed electronics provides a promising potential pathway toward the realization of ultralow-cost RFID tags for item-level tracking of consumer goods. Here, we report on our progress in developing materials, processes, and devices for the realization of ultralow-cost printed RFID tags. Using printed nanoparticle patterns that are subsequently(More)
There are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Only the genome of APMV type 1 (APMV-1), also called Newcastle disease virus (NDV), has been completely sequenced. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of an APMV-6 serotype isolated from ducks is reported. The 16236 nt genome encodes eight proteins, nucleocapsid protein (NP), phosphoprotein(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthetics are widely used to induce unconsciousness, pain relief, and immobility during surgery. It remains unclear whether the use of anesthetics has significant and long-lasting effects on synapse development and plasticity in the brain. To address this question, the authors examined the formation and elimination of dendritic spines,(More)
Pentacene is one of the most promising organic materials for organic transistor fabrication, since it offers higher mobility, better on-off ratio, improved environmental stability, and better reliability than most other organic semiconductors. However, its severe insolubility renders it useless for the solution-based fabrication of electronic devices.(More)
Printed electronics holds promise for realizing ultra-low-cost RFID tags for item-level tracking of consumer goods. We report on our progress in developing all-printed RFID tags. We review the development of printable materials for these applications, summarize the characteristics of printed devices, and discuss the implications of these on circuit(More)
A symmetrical alpha,omega-substituted sexithiophene derivative containing thermally removable branched ester solubilizing groups has been prepared. These oligomers can be solution cast into thin films and then thermolyzed to remove the solubilizing group, leaving short pendant alkene groups on the oligomer. Device testing of thin film transistors shows an(More)