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There is current evidence to demonstrate a close association between fungal sensitisation and asthma severity. Whether such an association is causal remains to be confirmed, but this is explored by means of a detailed literature review. There is evidence from two randomised controlled trials that, in the example of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis(More)
Aspergillus fumigatus is exceptional among microorganisms in being both a primary and opportunistic pathogen as well as a major allergen. Its conidia production is prolific, and so human respiratory tract exposure is almost constant. A. fumigatus is isolated from human habitats and vegetable compost heaps. In immunocompromised individuals, the incidence of(More)
We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable(More)
Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years. However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus, the most prevalent species in the genus. In certain locales and hospitals, Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second leading cause of(More)
Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic(More)
OBJECTIVES Resistance to azole antifungal drugs in Aspergillus fumigatus is now a major clinical problem in some locations. Here we update our previous experience with data from 2008-09. METHODS We tested all A. fumigatus isolates submitted to the Mycology Reference Centre Manchester in 2008 and 2009 for susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole and(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent increases in triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus have been attributed primarily to target site (cyp51A) mutations. A recent survey of resistant isolates in Manchester showed that >50% of resistant isolates had no mutation in cyp51A or its promoter. We investigated the mechanisms of resistance in clinical azole-resistant isolates(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is unique in its ability to infect a broad range of birds and mammals, including humans, leading to an extremely high worldwide prevalence and distribution. This work focuses on the environmentally resistant oocyst, which is the product of sexual replication in felids and an important source of(More)
Azole resistance is an increasing clinical problem for Aspergillus fumigatus, with the majority of published resistance arising from mutations in the azole target gene CYP51A. Previous structural studies of this protein have suffered from a nonorthologous, low-homology template for homology modeling. Here we present a new model based on the human CYP51A(More)