Paul Boerner

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The physical processes causing energy exchange between the Sun's hot corona and its cool lower atmosphere remain poorly understood. The chromosphere and transition region (TR) form an interface region between the surface and the corona that is highly sensitive to the coronal heating mechanism. High-resolution observations with the Interface Region Imaging(More)
OBJECTIVE Presently we note a standardization of techniques for laparoscopy assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH). Altgassen et al. pointed to this fact with their evaluation of 108 operations for cervical cancer. They considered the necessity to perform 100 such operations before standardizing this method. In our survey we compare a similar number(More)
Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field(More)
Coronal cavities are large low-density regions formed by hemispheric-scale magnetic flux ropes suspended in the Sun's outer atmosphere. They evolve over time, eventually erupting as the dark cores of coronal mass ejections. Although coronal mass ejections are common and can significantly affect planetary magnetospheres, the mechanisms by which cavities(More)
709 ectopic pregnancies were observed from 1983-1992 in the Department of Gynaecology of the Neukölln Hospital, Berlin, Germany, 585 out of which underwent laparoscopic treatment. 169 of 372 patients treated from 1986-1991 still wished to conceive, and we found intrauterine pregnancies in 60% (102 patients) and recurrent ectopic pregnancies in 27% (46(More)
As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network(More)
The Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, is heated to millions of degrees, considerably hotter than its surface or photosphere. Explanations for this enigma typically invoke the deposition in the corona of nonthermal energy generated by magnetoconvection. However, the coronal heating mechanism remains unknown. We used observations from the Solar Dynamics(More)
The solar atmosphere was traditionally represented with a simple one-dimensional model. Over the past few decades, this paradigm shifted for the chromosphere and corona that constitute the outer atmosphere, which is now considered a dynamic structured envelope. Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal that it is(More)
Female rats (Sprague-Dawley) were periodically injected with one of four doses (2.8 mg/kg to 14 mg/kg) of diethylnitrosamine. Almost all liver carcinomas that appeared after months lacked glucose-6-phosphatase as measured histochemically. At all doses clearly delineated islands of cells without glucose-6-phosphatase were observed long before carcinomas(More)