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This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self-assessment are considered alongside analysis of the(More)
Observations of the large earth bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (L.), in native vegetation were collated to determine the extent to which this exotic species has invaded Tasmanian native vegetation during the first 9 years after its introduction. The range of B. terrestris now encompasses all of Tasmania’s major vegetation types, altitudes from sea level to(More)
A 2 1/2-year-old girl had a good neurologic recovery after submersion in cold water for at least 66 minutes; as far as we know, this is the longest time ever reported. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was maintained for more than two hours before the initiation of extracorporeal rewarming in this child who had a core temperature of 19 degrees C. To our(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis associated with nonbacterial infections are clinically distinguishable from other exacerbations. Eighty exacerbations in 54 patients were studied. Exacerbations associated with influenza (n = 8) were compared with those associated with other nonbacterial(More)
BACKGROUND The study was conducted in order to determine if the glycoprotein KL-6 is a useful biomarker in differentiating neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI), a benign form of children's interstitial lung disease, from the more severe inborn errors of surfactant metabolism (IESM), since their clinical presentation can be similar. METHODS(More)
The reconstructive surgeon, dealing with both congenital anomalies such as clefts, and post-surgical or post-traumatic defects, may, on occasion be faced with a situation where there is either a unilateral deficit or excess of lip volume, or an asymmetry with bilateral volume inequalities. The classic examples of this are the characteristic whistle notch(More)
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The efficacy of aztreonam was compared to that of standard therapy consisting of tobramycin and azlocillin in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis in a randomized, open trial. Fifteen patients were randomized to each treatment. Responses were assessed based on changes in pulmonary and clinical scores, white blood cell counts,(More)
Ten young adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over 16 years of age (average 21.4 years) began nighttime enteral feedings as a method of nutritional rehabilitation to regain and maintain body weight. Patients received nighttime feedings of 1,000 kcal/M2 of a low- (Pulmocare), medium- (Ensure Plus), or high-carbohydrate (Vivonex) formula for at least 2 nights(More)