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This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self-assessment are considered alongside analysis of the(More)
The subject of neuroinflammation is reviewed. In response to psychological stress or certain physical stressors, an inflammatory process may occur by release of neuropeptides, especially Substance P (SP), or other inflammatory mediators, from sensory nerves and the activation of mast cells or other inflammatory cells. Central neuropeptides, particularly(More)
In previous publications, we presented the hypothesis that repeated episodes of acute or chronic psychological stress could induce an acute phase response (APR) and subsequently a chronic inflammatory process such as atherosclerosis. In this paper, that hypothesis, namely that such stress can induce an APR and inflammation, has been extended to include a(More)
Various psychosocial factors have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of certain cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, now considered to be the result of a chronic inflammatory process. In this article, we review the evidence that repeated episodes of acute psychological stress, or chronic psychologic stress, may induce a chronic(More)
Inflammation is frequently present in the visceral fat and vasculature in certain patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or adult onset Diabetes Mellitus Type II (NIDDM). An hypothesis is presented which argues that repeated acute or chronic psychologically stressful states may cause this inflammatory process. The mediators are the major stress(More)
Twenty healthy volunteers (half male) recalled and relived maximally disturbing (NEG) and maximally pleasurable (POS) emotional experiences. Forty minutes of silence, then neutral conversation, preceded and followed 40 minutes of emotion elicitation (NEG and POS randomly rotated). They were under video, cardiovascular, and immunological monitoring. Subjects(More)
Previous studies from this laboratory had shown that exposure of mice to cold water stress leads to an increase in the secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) from their peritoneal macrophages. We now report that the secretion of IL-6 from peritoneal macrophages is also increased after cold water stress and that the(More)
The phenomenon of shedding of cell surface macromolecules and their importance in the cancer process has been reviewed with particular emphasis on tumor membrane fragments. With cell activation (during growth or stimulation of normal cells), there is an increase in synthesis, processing, insertion, and eventual, intact release of certain membrane proteins,(More)
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A number of studies indicate that stress can result in suppression of the immune system in animals and man. Most of the studies have focused on alterations of lymphocyte function while only a few have investigated alterations of macrophage function or macrophage cytokine production. Macrophages play an essential role in homeostasis of the immune response.(More)