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The viruses most commonly associated with food- and waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis are the noroviruses. The lack of a culture method for noroviruses warrants the use of cultivable model viruses to gain more insight on their transmission routes and inactivation methods. We studied the inactivation of the reported enteric canine calicivirus no. 48(More)
Poliovirus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) is detected after infection with wild-type virus or vaccination with live attenuated oral poliovirus (OPV) but not after vaccination with inactivated poliovirus (IPV). We examined whether the presence of IgA in serum can be used as a marker for poliovirus circulation in IPV-vaccinated populations in The(More)
Noroviruses (previously Norwalk-like viruses) are the most common viral agents associated with food- and waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, animal caliciviruses were used as model viruses to study inactivation by nonionizing (253.7-nm-wavelength [UV]) and ionizing (gamma) radiation. Here, we studied(More)
State of Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands, 2013 The measles outbreak in 2013 was the most striking infectious disease of that year. This is demonstrated in the State of Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands 2013, which provides insight into infectious disease trends in the Dutch population. Developments in other countries that are relevant for the(More)
Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the Netherlands or in other regions to help decide whether to(More)
BACKGROUND Viral interaction in which outbreaks of influenza and other common respiratory viruses might affect each other has been postulated by several short studies. Regarding longer time periods, influenza epidemics occasionally occur very early in the season, as during the 2009 pandemic. Whether early occurrence of influenza epidemics impacts outbreaks(More)
Background In 2012, the Netherlands experienced the most extensive food-related outbreak of Salmonella ever recorded. It was caused by smoked salmon contaminated with Salmonella Thompson during processing. In total, 1149 cases of salmonellosis were laboratory confirmed and reported to RIVM. Twenty percent of cases was hospitalised and four cases were(More)
BACKGROUND Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were(More)