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Pestiviruses belong to the family Flaviviridae, and their genome is a single-stranded RNA of positive polarity encoding one large polyprotein which is further processed into mature proteins. Noncytopathogenic (noncp) strains of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can establish persistent infection. In persistently infected animals, noncp BVDVs(More)
Currently, the genus Pestivirus comprises the four approved species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Border disease virus (BDV) and one tentative fifth species represented by a single strain (H138) isolated from a giraffe in Kenya more than 30 years ago. To further address the issue of heterogeneity of(More)
Infections with pestiviruses occur in cattle, sheep, pigs and also in numerous other ungulate species. In the present study, pestiviruses from goat, buffalo, deer and giraffe were analysed at the molecular level; unusual strains from cattle and pigs were also included. A phylogenetic analysis of the respective pestiviruses was undertaken on the basis of a(More)
The complete Npro coding sequences were determined for 16 pestiviruses isolated from cattle, pig, and several wild ruminant species including reindeer, bison, deer, and bongo. Phylogenetic analysis enabled the segregation of pestiviruses into the established species bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, border disease virus (BDV), and classical(More)
After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. RNA transcribed in vitro from this construct was shown to direct the generation of infectious BVDV upon transfection into bovine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious BVDV from cloned cDNA a genetically tagged virus(More)
Four bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) pairs consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and noncp BVDV-2 were isolated during an outbreak of mucosal disease. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the four noncp BVDV-2 isolates were almost identical. For the cp BVDV-2 isolates, viral subgenomic RNAs were shown by Northern blot to have a length of about(More)
Identification and classification of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on the basis of nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have become an important tool to study the epidemiology and to control CSF disease. According to phylogenetic analyses of short sequences from the 5'nontranslated region (150 nt) and the E2 (190 nt), most CSFV isolates from(More)
For the important livestock pathogens classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cp viruses are distinguished according to the induction of apoptosis in infected tissue culture cells. However, it is currently unknown whether cp CSFV differs from non-cp CSFV with regard to virulence in the acutely(More)
Molecular epidemiology has proven to be an essential tool in the control of classical swine fever (CSF) and its use has significantly increased during the past two decades. Phylogenetic analysis is a prerequisite for virus tracing and thus allows implementing more effective control measures. So far, fragments of the 5´NTR (150 nucleotides, nt) and the E2(More)
A virus was isolated from tissues of 2 diseased Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni) and preliminarily characterized as an iridovirus. This conclusion was based on the presence of inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of infected cells, sensitivity to chloroform, inhibition of virus replication by 5-iodo-2'-desoxyuridine and the size and icosahedral(More)