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Mammalian cells employ numerous innate cellular mechanisms to inhibit viral replication and spread. Tetherin, also known as Bst-2 or CD317, is a recently identified, IFN-induced, cellular response factor that blocks release of HIV-1 and other retroviruses from infected cells. The means by which tetherin retains retroviruses on the cell surface, as well as(More)
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an IFN induced transmembrane protein that restricts release of a broad range of enveloped viruses. Important features required for Tetherin activity and regulation reside within the cytoplasmic domain. Here we demonstrate that two isoforms, derived by alternative translation initiation from highly conserved methionine(More)
The lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can augment viral infection; however, the range of pathogens interacting with these attachment factors is incompletely defined. Here we show that DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR enhance infection mediated by the glycoprotein (GP) of Marburg virus (MARV) and the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and might(More)
Cellular receptors are required for efficient entry of retroviruses into cells. We previously cloned a chicken gene responsible for susceptibility to the retrovirus subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus (RSV(A)). Here we have isolated the quail homolog and generated two alternatively spliced processed genes encoding cellular receptors for RSV(A). Predicted products(More)
The Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP) derived from the pathogenic Zaire subtype mediates cell rounding and detachment from the extracellular matrix in 293T cells. In this study we provide evidence that GPs from the other pathogenic subtypes, Sudan and Côte d'Ivoire, as well as from Reston, a strain thought to be nonpathogenic in humans, also induced(More)
Studies analyzing Ebola virus replication have been severely hampered by the extreme pathogenicity of this virus. To permit analysis of the host range and function of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (Ebo-GP), we have developed a system for pseudotyping these glycoproteins into murine leukemia virus (MLV). This pseudotyped virus, MLV(Ebola), can be readily(More)
The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR [collectively referred to as DC-SIGN(R)] bind and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus to T cells via the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Other viruses containing heavily glycosylated glycoproteins (GPs) fail to interact with DC-SIGN(R), suggesting some degree of specificity(More)
Ebola virus exhibits a broad cellular tropism in vitro. In humans and animal models, virus is found in most tissues and organs during the latter stages of infection. In contrast, a more restricted cell and tissue tropism is exhibited early in infection where macrophages, liver, lymph node, and spleen are major initial targets. This indicates that cellular(More)
Most strains of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) express a cleavable spike glycoprotein that mediates viral entry and pH-independent cell-cell fusion. The MHV type 2 (MHV-2) strain of murine coronavirus differs from other strains in that it expresses an uncleaved spike and cannot induce cell-cell fusion at neutral pH values. We show here that(More)
We used a genetic strategy to isolate the chicken gene believed to encode the receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma viruses (ALSV-A). Chicken genomic DNA was transfected into monkey COS-7 cells, and two independent primary transfectants susceptible to ALSV-A infection were identified by using ALSV-A vectors containing a hygromycin B resistance(More)