Paul Bach-y-Rita

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Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used, or with the information processed in some useful way. We review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin. First, we discuss present and(More)
Recent advances in the instrumentation technology of sensory substitution have presented new opportunities to develop systems for compensation of sensory loss. In sensory substitution (e.g. of sight or vestibular function), information from an artificial receptor is coupled to the brain via a human-machine interface. The brain is able to use this(More)
Form perception with the tongue was studied with a 49-point electrotactile array. Five sighted adult human subjects (3M/2F) each received 4 blocks of 12 tactile patterns, approximations of circles, squares, and vertex-up equilateral triangles, sized to 4x4, 5x5, 6x6, and 7x7 electrode arrays. Perception with electrical stimulation of the tongue is better(More)
The human postural coordination mechanism is an example of a complex closed-loop control system based on multisensory integration [9,10,13,14]. In models of this process, sensory data from vestibular, visual, tactile and proprioceptive systems are integrated as linearly additive inputs that drive multiple sensory-motor loops to provide effective(More)
We see with the brain, not the eyes (Bach-y-Rita, 1972); images that pass through our pupils go no further than the retina. From there image information travels to the rest of the brain by means of coded pulse trains, and the brain, being highly plastic, can learn to interpret them in visual terms. Perceptual levels of the brain interpret the spatially(More)
Forty years ago a project to explore late brain plasticity was initiated that was to lead into a broad area of sensory substitution studies. The questions at that time were: Can a person who has never seen learn to see as an adult? Is the brain sufficiently plastic to develop an entirely new sensory system? The short answer to both questions is yes, first(More)
Vestibular dysfunction of either central or peripheral origin can significantly affect balance, posture, and gait. We conducted a pilot study to test the effectiveness of training with the BrainPort balance device in subjects with a balance dysfunction due to peripheral or central vestibular loss. The BrainPort balance device transmits information about the(More)
I N T R O D U C T I O N T w o d i s t inc t types of musc le fibers, s imi lar t o t h e twi t ch a n d slow f ibers of t h e f rog , h a v e recen t ly b e e n ident i f ied in m a m m a l i a n eye muscles, b o t h b y his tological s tudies (10, 11) a n d b y physiological s tudies (11, 15, 18). M a t y u s h k i n (16) h a s l abe led t h e " t w i t c(More)
One of the factors leading to the virtual neglect of the long-term potential for functional recovery following brain damage was the eclipse of plasticity concepts during the 100 years following Broca's 1861 publication on location of function. However, in the last 30 years evidence has been accumulating that demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and thus(More)