Paul B . Rock

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Although acute mountain sickness (AMS) has been studied for well over a century, a standard measure or index of the degree of illness for use in experimental research does not exist. This paper outlines a definition and procedures for an operational measurement of AMS using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ). After 58 men completed over 650 ESQs(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise performance data of numerous altitude research studies and competitive sporting events of the last four decades are reviewed. METHODS The primary focus is on the wide interindividual variation associated with maximal and submaximal exercise performance that occurs at different altitudes and for different periods of time at altitude. (More)
A decrease in maximal O2 uptake has been demonstrated with increasing altitude. However, direct measurements of individual links in the O2 transport chain at extreme altitude have not been obtained previously. In this study we examined eight healthy males, aged 21-31 yr, at rest and during steady-state exercise at sea level and the following inspired O2(More)
BACKGROUND Acute mountain sickness occurs in some unacclimatized persons who travel to terrestrial altitudes at which barometric pressures are the same as those in commercial aircraft during flight. Whether the effects are similar in air travelers is unknown. METHODS We conducted a prospective, single-blind, controlled hypobaric-chamber study of adult(More)
In previous gender comparisons of muscle performance, men and women rarely have been closely matched, absolute force has not been equalized, and rates of fatigue and early recovery have not been determined. We compared adductor pollicis muscle performance at a similar absolute force development in healthy men and women (both n=9) matched for adductor(More)
High altitude increases pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), but no measurements have been made in humans above 4,500 m. Eight male athletic volunteers were decompressed in a hypobaric chamber for 40 days to a barometric pressure (PB) of 240 Torr, equivalent to the summit of Mt. Everest. Serial hemodynamic measurements were made at PB 760 (sea level), 347(More)
Large muscle exercise performance is impaired during acute exposure to normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia, but the effects of hypoxic conditions on fatigue of isolated smaller muscle groups per se are poorly defined. We studied how acute and chronic altitude (ALT) exposure and post-ALT return to sea level (SL) affects voluntary strength and fatigue of the(More)
The human visual system is sensitive to second-order modulations of the local contrast (CM) or amplitude (AM) of a carrier signal. Second-order cues are detected independently of first-order luminance signals; however, it is not clear why vision should benefit from second-order sensitivity. Analysis of the first- and second-order contents of natural images(More)
To test the hypotheses that prolonged exposure to moderately high altitude increases the energy requirement of adequately fed women and that the sole cause of the increase is an elevation in basal metabolic rate (BMR), we studied 16 healthy women [21.7 +/- 0.5 (SD) yr; 167.4 +/- 1.1 cm; 62.2 +/- 1.0 kg]. Studies were conducted over 12 days at sea level (SL)(More)
Hypoxia at high altitude could depress cardiac function and decrease exercise capacity. If so, impaired cardiac function should occur with the extreme, chronic hypoxemia of the 40-day simulated climb of Mt. Everest (8,840 m, barometric pressure of 240 Torr, inspiratory O2 pressure of 43 Torr). In the five of eight subjects having resting and exercise(More)