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The human visual system is sensitive to second-order modulations of the local contrast (CM) or amplitude (AM) of a carrier signal. Second-order cues are detected independently of first-order luminance signals; however, it is not clear why vision should benefit from second-order sensitivity. Analysis of the first- and second-order contents of natural images(More)
People readily perceive smooth luminance variations as being due to the shading produced by undulations of a 3-D surface (shape-from-shading). In doing so, the visual system must simultaneously estimate the shape of the surface and the nature of the illumination. Remarkably, shape-from-shading operates even when both these properties are unknown and neither(More)
The pattern of illumination on an undulating surface can be used to infer its 3-D form (shape-from-shading). But the recovery of shape would be invalid if the luminance changes actually arose from changes in reflectance. So how does vision distinguish variation in illumination from variation in reflectance to avoid illusory depth? When a corrugated surface(More)
D. N. Lee (1976) described a braking strategy based on optical expansion in which the driver brakes so that the target's time-to-contact declines around a constant slope in the range -0.5 < or = tau < 0. The present results from a series of braking simulations confirm and extend earlier reports (E. H. Yilmaz & W. H. Warren, 1995) that performance is broadly(More)
BACKGROUND Acute mountain sickness occurs in some unacclimatized persons who travel to terrestrial altitudes at which barometric pressures are the same as those in commercial aircraft during flight. Whether the effects are similar in air travelers is unknown. METHODS We conducted a prospective, single-blind, controlled hypobaric-chamber study of adult(More)
A controlled experiment used instrumented vehicles in a real-world driving task to compare D. N. Lee's (1976) tau-dot hypothesis of braking control with an alternative based on the direct estimation and control of ideal deceleration (T. Yates, M. Harris, & P. Rock, 2004). Drivers braked to stop as closely as possible to a visual target from different(More)
PURPOSE This study tested the hypothesis that antioxidant supplementation would attenuate plasma cytokine (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations at rest and in response to exercise at 4300-m elevation. METHODS A total of 17 recreationally trained men were matched and assigned to an antioxidant (N = 9) or(More)
This study determined the effectiveness of 6 days (d) of staging at 2200 m on physiologic adjustments and acute mountain sickness (AMS) during rapid, high-risk ascent to 4300 m. Eleven sea-level (SL) resident men (means +/- SD; 21 +/- 3 yr; 78 +/- 13 kg) completed resting measures of end-tidal CO(2) (Petco(2)), arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)), heart(More)
People perceive smooth luminance variations as being due to the shading produced by surface undulations: shape-from-shading. To do this the visual system must simultaneously estimate the nature of the illumination and the shape of the surface. Shape-from-shading operates even when both these properties are unknown and neither can be estimated directly from(More)