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BACKGROUND Exercise performance data of numerous altitude research studies and competitive sporting events of the last four decades are reviewed. METHODS The primary focus is on the wide interindividual variation associated with maximal and submaximal exercise performance that occurs at different altitudes and for different periods of time at altitude. (More)
The human visual system is sensitive to second-order modulations of the local contrast (CM) or amplitude (AM) of a carrier signal. Second-order cues are detected independently of first-order luminance signals; however, it is not clear why vision should benefit from second-order sensitivity. Analysis of the first- and second-order contents of natural images(More)
Although acute mountain sickness (AMS) has been studied for well over a century, a standard measure or index of the degree of illness for use in experimental research does not exist. This paper outlines a definition and procedures for an operational measurement of AMS using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ). After 58 men completed over 650 ESQs(More)
High altitude increases pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), but no measurements have been made in humans above 4,500 m. Eight male athletic volunteers were decompressed in a hypobaric chamber for 40 days to a barometric pressure (PB) of 240 Torr, equivalent to the summit of Mt. Everest. Serial hemodynamic measurements were made at PB 760 (sea level), 347(More)
A decrease in maximal O2 uptake has been demonstrated with increasing altitude. However, direct measurements of individual links in the O2 transport chain at extreme altitude have not been obtained previously. In this study we examined eight healthy males, aged 21-31 yr, at rest and during steady-state exercise at sea level and the following inspired O2(More)
Women living at low altitudes or acclimatized to high altitudes have greater effective ventilation in the luteal (L) compared with follicular (F) menstrual cycle phase and compared with men. We hypothesized that ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude would occur more quickly and to a greater degree in 1) women in their L compared with women in their F(More)
We applied a novel MR imaging technique to investigate the effect of acute mountain sickness on cerebral tissue water. Nine volunteers were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to 4572 m altitude for 32 h. Such an exposure may cause acute mountain sickness. We imaged the brains of the volunteers before and at 32 h of hypobaric exposure with two(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypobaric hypoxia and heightened metabolic rate increase free radical production. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that antioxidant supplementation would reduce oxidative stress associated with increased energy expenditure (negative energy balance) at high altitude (HA 4300 m). METHODS For 12 d at sea level (SL), 18 active men were fed a(More)
A number of physiological responses and adjustments occur at high altitude to compensate for hypoxia. We hypothesized that interference with one component of the normal compensatory process, the sympathetic nervous system, would hinder altitude acclimatization and thereby exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS) and compromise well-being. Twelve young males(More)
High-altitude anorexia leads to a hormonal response pattern modulated by both hypoxia and caloric restriction (CR). The purpose of this study was to compare altitude-induced neuroendocrine changes with or without energy imbalance and to explore how energy sufficiency alters the endocrine acclimatization process. Twenty-six normal-weight, young men were(More)