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Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement,(More)
Ricin is a naturally occurring toxin derived from the beans of the castor oil plant Ricinus communis. It is considered a potential chemical weapon. Ricin binds to cell surface carbohydrates, is internalised then causes cell death by inhibiting protein synthesis. Oral absorption is poor and absorption through intact skin most unlikely; the most hazardous(More)
There are important differences between on-target military attacks against relatively well protected Armed Forces and nerve agent attacks initiated by terrorists against a civilian population. In contrast to military personnel, civilians are unlikely to be pre-treated with pyridostigmine and protected by personal protective equipment. Furthermore, the time(More)
1. Abrin and ricin are highly toxic plant proteins which are very similar in structure and function and inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotes. 2. Rats have been immunised against either toxin using formaldehyde-toxoids by three subcutaneous injections at intervals of 3 weeks. For abrin, serum titres in 14 out of 15 rats were raised to between 1:12800 and(More)
Vesicants are a group of chemicals recognised, under the terms of the Chemical Weapons Convention, as potential chemical warfare agents whose prime effect on the skin is to cause burns and blistering. Experience of the clinical management of these injuries is not readily available and therefore an accurate assessment of the severity of the lesion and extent(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an in vitro skin diffusion cell system as a model for assessing decontaminants against the chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The in vitro absorption rates of SM through heat-separated human (157 +/- 66 microg cm(-2) h(-1)) and pig-ear (411 +/- 175 microg cm(-2) h(-1)) epidermal membranes were in(More)
Phosgene is a chemical widely used in the plastics industry and has been used in warfare. It produces a life-threatening pulmonary edema within hours of exposure, to which no specific antidote exists. This study aims to examine the pathophysiological changes seen with low tidal volume ventilation (protective ventilation (PV)) strategies compared to(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the effectiveness of nebulised salbutamol in the treatment of phosgene induced acute lung injury. METHOD Using previously validated methods, 12 anaesthetised large white pigs were exposed to phosgene (Ct 1978 +/- 8 mg min m(-3)), established on mechanical ventilation and randomised to treatment with either nebulised salbutamol (2.5(More)
Toxic industrial chemicals e.g., phosgene, are widely used as reactive intermediates in industrial processes. Inhalation exposure to these chemicals can result in life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI), to which no specific antidote exists. This study aimed to assess the potential benefit of steroids in treating phosgene induced ALI. Anesthetized pigs(More)