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In Arabidopsis thaliana, signal transduction of the hormone ethylene involves at least two receptors, ETR1 and ERS, both of which are members of the two-component histidine protein kinase family that is prevalent in prokaryotes. The pathway also contains a negative regulator of ethylene responses, CTR1, which closely resembles members of the Raf protein(More)
Aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils is a worldwide agricultural problem that severely limits crop productivity through inhibition of root growth. Previously, Arabidopsis mutants with increased Al sensitivity were isolated in order to identify genes important for Al tolerance in plants. One mutant, als3, exhibited extreme root growth inhibition in the(More)
Aluminum toxicity in acid soils severely limits crop productivity through inhibition of root growth and, consequently, shoot development. Several Arabidopsis mutants were previously identified as having roots with Al hypersensitivity, suggesting that these represent deleterious mutations affecting genes required for either Al tolerance or resistance(More)
Ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis begins at a family of five ethylene receptors that regulate activity of a downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, CTR1. Triple and quadruple loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants display a constitutive ethylene response phenotype, indicating they function as negative regulators in this pathway. No(More)
The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is regulated by the phytohormone ethylene and is associated with considerable catabolic activity including the loss of protein. In this paper we present the molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase and show that its expression is regulated by ethylene and associated with petal(More)
Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important eukaryotic lipid-signalling molecule. In plants, PA formation is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, including wounding, pathogen attack, drought, salinity, cold, and freezing. However, few molecular targets of PA have been identified so far. One of the best characterized(More)
By screening etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings for mutants with aberrant ethylene-related phenotypes, we identified a mutant that displays features of the ethylene-mediated triple response even in the absence of ethylene. Further characterization showed that the phenotype observed for the dark-grown seedlings of this mutant is reversible by prevention of(More)
Ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis begins with a family of five ethylene receptors that regulate the activity of the Raf-like kinase, CTR1. Recent work to identify novel factors required for modulating ethylene signaling resulted in the isolation of enhanced ethylene response 1 (eer1), a mutant that displays both increased sensitivity and increased amplitude(More)
An Arabidopsis mutant, eer5-1, which has an enhanced ethylene response in etiolated seedlings, including hypersensitivity and extreme exaggeration of response to ethylene, was isolated and characterized. As with other identified eer mutants, the enhanced response phenotype of eer5-1 was correlated with failure to induce appropriately a subset of(More)
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a global issue that severely limits root growth in acidic soils. Isolation of suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana Al-hypersensitive mutant, als3-1, resulted in identification of a cell cycle checkpoint factor, ALUMINUM TOLERANT2 (ALT2), which monitors and responds to DNA damage. ALT2 is required for active stoppage of root(More)