Focally evoked calcium waves in astrocyte cultures have been thought to propagate by gap-junction-mediated intercellular passage of chemical signal(s). In contrast to this mechanism we observed isolated astrocytes, which had no physical contact with other astrocytes in the culture, participating in a calcium wave. This observation requires an extracellular… (More)
Communication from astrocytes to neurons has recently been reported by two laboratories, but different mechanisms were though to underlie glial calcium wave activation of associated neurons. Neuronal calcium elevation by glia observed in the present report is similar to that reported previously, where an increase in neuronal calcium was demonstrated in… (More)
Proteoglycans have been implicated in neuronal path-finding during development, yet related second messenger and signaling systems are unknown. We have used the calcium indicator fura-2/AM to monitor cytoplasmic calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal growth cones elongating on laminin during contact with chondroitin… (More)
The present study investigates how a neuron's past history of neural activity may alter its responsiveness to subsequent signals. We demonstrate that a depolarizing pulse of extracellular potassium can prime neurons to become responsive to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), even when the pulse is brief and occurs prior to addition of bFGF. Specifically,… (More)
Man in a briefcase: the social construction of the laptop computer and the emergence of a type form Original Citation Atkinson, Paul (2005) Man in a briefcase: the social construction of the laptop computer and the emergence of a type form. Users may access full items free of charge; copies of full text items generally can be reproduced, displayed or… (More)
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This article illustrates how cultural history can deepen the understanding of demographic change, presenting evidence about ways in which rising working-class expectations about appropriate living standards may have created additional pressures on the perceived costs of child-rearing. Among the key areas of family consumption, housing costs are selected for… (More)