Paul Anthony Kroon

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BACKGROUND The beneficial effects of flavonoid consumption on cardiovascular risk are supported by mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence. OBJECTIVE We aimed to systematically review the effectiveness of different flavonoid subclasses and flavonoid-rich food sources on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors--ie, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and(More)
Lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH; EC 3.2.1.62) is a membrane-bound, family 1 beta-glycosidase found on the brush border of the mammalian small intestine. LPH, purified from sheep small intestine, was capable of hydrolysing a range of flavonol and isoflavone glycosides. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for the hydrolysis of quercetin-4'-glucoside,(More)
An esterase was isolated from cultures of the filamentous fungus Penicillium funiculosum grown on sugar beet pulp as the sole carbon source. The enzyme (ferulic acid esterase B, FAEB) was shown to be a cinnamoyl esterase (CE), efficiently releasing hydroxycinnamic acids from synthetic ester substrates and plant cell walls, and bound strongly to(More)
Moringa species are important multi-purpose tropical crops, as human foods and for medicine and oil production. There has been no previous comprehensive analysis of the secondary metabolites in Moringa species. Tissues of M. oleifera from a wide variety of sources and M. stenopetala from a single source were analyzed for glucosinolates and phenolics(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods beneficially affects cardiovascular health; however, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of anthocyanin-rich foods are relatively unknown. OBJECTIVE We investigated the ADME of a (13)C5-labeled anthocyanin in humans. DESIGN Eight male participants(More)
BACKGROUND There is substantial interest in chocolate and flavan-3-ols for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE The objective was to systematically review the effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on major CVD risk factors. DESIGN We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that the small intestine is the major site of absorption for many flavonoid glucosides. Flavonoids are generally present as glycosylated forms in plants and foods, but there is increasing evidence that the forms reaching the systemic circulation are glucuronidated, sulphated and methylated derivatives. Hence,(More)
As an influence of the Mediterranean diet, rocket species such as Eruca sativa L., Diplotaxis species, and Bunias orientalis L. are eaten all over the world at different ontogenic stages in salads and soups. They are all species within the plant order Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), and all are from the family Brassicaceae. Predominantly, the(More)
Human intervention studies have provided clear evidence that dietary polyphenols (eg, flavonoids--eg, flavonols--and isoflavones) are at least partly absorbed and that they have the potential to exert biological effects. Biological activity of polyphenols is often assessed by using cultured cells as tissue models; in almost all such studies, cells are(More)