Paul A Vöhringer

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BACKGROUND Mixed depression (MxD) is narrowly defined in the DSM-IV and somewhat broader in the DSM-5, although both exclude psychomotor agitation as a diagnostic criterion. This article proposes a clinical description for defining MxD, which emphasizes psychomotor excitation. METHODS Two hundred and nineteen consecutive outpatients were diagnosed with an(More)
OBJECTIVE High sodium (HS) diet is associated with hypertension (HT) and insulin resistance (IR). We evaluated whether HS diet was associated with a dysregulation of cortisol production and metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS We recruited 370 adults (18-85 years, BMI 29·3 ± 4·4 kg/m(2) , 70% women, 72% HT, 61% MetS). HS diet (urinary(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous reviews and meta-analyses of the antidepressant literature in major depressive disorders (MDD), both acute and maintenance, have been published, some claiming that antidepressants are mostly ineffective and others that they are mostly effective, in either acute or maintenance treatment. OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to review(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the efficacy of ziprasidone vs. placebo for the depressive mixed state in patients with bipolar disorder type II or major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS 73 patients were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to ziprasidone (40-160 mg/d) or placebo for 6 weeks. They met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive(More)
IMPORTANCE Depression can have devastating effects unless prevented or treated early and effectively. Schools offer an excellent opportunity to intervene with adolescents presenting emotional problems. There are very few universal school-based depression interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of(More)
AIMS Previous comparisons of cognitive decline among patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) have found somehow quite similar profiles of deficits, but results have varied between studies. Therefore an extensive and thoughtful systematic review of the matter is warranted. METHODS Studies were found through systematic search (PubMed)(More)
Dyskinesia eventually develops in the majority of Parkinson's disease patients treated with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). We have investigated the effect of an acute and local administration of L-DOPA, GABA and glutamate to provoke dyskinetic movements in three basal ganglia structures (striatum, globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra pars(More)
BACKGROUND Mixed depression reflects the occurrence of a major depressive episode with subsyndromal manic symptoms. Not recognized in DSM-IV, it is included in the proposed changes for DSM-5. Observational and cross-sectional studies have suggested that mixed depression is present in up to one-half of major depressive episodes, whether in MDD or bipolar(More)
Biopsychosocial eclecticism has led, the authors believe, to a simplistic acceptance of a unitary view of MDD with little scientific solidity. The authors propose a return to careful psychopathology as the basis of all nosology, which has led to identifying four main types of depressive illness, and a method-based, existential approach to understanding(More)