Paul A. Vöhringer

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Biopsychosocial eclecticism has led, the authors believe, to a simplistic acceptance of a unitary view of MDD with little scientific solidity. The authors propose a return to careful psychopathology as the basis of all nosology, which has led to identifying four main types of depressive illness, and a method-based, existential approach to understanding(More)
AIMS Previous comparisons of cognitive decline among patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) have found somehow quite similar profiles of deficits, but results have varied between studies. Therefore an extensive and thoughtful systematic review of the matter is warranted. METHODS Studies were found through systematic search (PubMed)(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous reviews and meta-analyses of the antidepressant literature in major depressive disorders (MDD), both acute and maintenance, have been published, some claiming that antidepressants are mostly ineffective and others that they are mostly effective, in either acute or maintenance treatment. OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to review(More)
OBJECTIVES Prognosis of comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and drug abuse is poor. We assessed the efficacy of olanzapine in manic or mixed BD patients, with (SUD) or without (N-SUD) comorbidity with substance use disorder (SUD) and its effect on drug abuse, days of abuse, and craving. METHODS Eighty patients with BD-I (40 SUD) were hospitalized for a manic(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the efficacy of ziprasidone vs. placebo for the depressive mixed state in patients with bipolar disorder type II or major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS 73 patients were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to ziprasidone (40-160 mg/d) or placebo for 6 weeks. They met DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive(More)
BACKGROUND Mixed depression (MxD) is narrowly defined in the DSM-IV and somewhat broader in the DSM-5, although both exclude psychomotor agitation as a diagnostic criterion. This article proposes a clinical description for defining MxD, which emphasizes psychomotor excitation. METHODS Two hundred and nineteen consecutive outpatients were diagnosed with an(More)
OBJECTIVE Features of bipolarity in a major depressive disorder sample were used to define a "bipolar spectrum disorder" population for treatment with a neuroleptic agent, ziprasidone. METHODS Forty-nine acutely depressed patients were randomized to ziprasidone-washout-placebo or placebo-washout-ziprasidone in this double-blind, prospective, 13-week(More)
BACKGROUND Suicidal behaviors and depression are prevalent phenomena among adolescents, and are considered a public health problem. AIM To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors and the relationship between both phenomena, in a representative sample of students from ninth grade in Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS We(More)
Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be(More)