Paul A Stevenson

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Intraspecific aggression is influenced in numerous animal groups by the previous behavioral experiences of the competitors. The underlying mechanisms are, however, mostly obscure. We present evidence that a form of experience-dependent plasticity of aggression in crickets is mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline. In a(More)
Although it is generally agreed that locusts can generate flight similar rhythmic motor activity in the absence of sensory feedback from the wings, recent studies indicate that functional deafferentation produces significant changes in the flight motor pattern (Hedwig and Pearson 1984). These findings have raised doubts on the adequacy of the central(More)
A central question in behavioural control is how central pattern generators (CPGs) for locomotion are activated. This paper disputes the key role generally accredited to octopamine in activating the CPG for insect flight. In deafferented locusts, fictive flight was initiated by bath application of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, the acetylcholine(More)
Aggressive and escape behaviors were analysed in crickets (Orthoptera) treated with either reserpine, a nonspecific depleter of biogenic amines, or the synthesis inhibitors alpha-methyltryptophan (AMTP) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMT) to specifically deplete serotonin, respectively dopamine and octopamine. Standard immunocytochemical techniques were used(More)
This paper reviews data on the localization of octopaminergic neurons revealed by immunocytochemistry in insects, primarily the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, and cockroach Periplaneta americana. Supporting evidence for their octopaminergic nature is mentioned where available. In orthopteran ventral(More)
We describe octopamine-immunoreactive somata and their projections in the pro- meso-, meta- and pregenital abdominal-ganglia of locusts. Immunoreactive midline somata were identified as dorsal- and ventral- unpaired median (DUM- and VUM-, respectively) neurones due to their: characteristic large size and positions of somata, primary neurites in DUM-tracts(More)
BACKGROUND While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental(More)
Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental(More)