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Parasympathetic nerve stimulation causes slowing of the heart rate by activation of muscarinic receptors and the subsequent opening of muscarinic K+ channels in the sinoatrial node and atrium. This inwardly rectifying K+ channel is coupled directly with G protein. Based on sequence homology with cloned inwardly rectifying K+ channels, ROMK1 (ref. 11) and(More)
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels hyperpolarize neurons in response to activation of many different G protein-coupled receptors and thus control the excitability of neurons through GIRK-mediated self-inhibition, slow synaptic potentials and volume transmission. GIRK channel function and trafficking are highly dependent on the(More)
N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of inwardly rectifying K (Kir) channels control the ion-permeation pathway through diverse interactions with small molecules and protein ligands in the cytoplasm. Two new crystal structures of the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (Kir2.1(L)) and the G protein-sensitive Kir3.1 (Kir3.1(S)) channels in the absence of PIP(2)(More)
The weaver mutation corresponds to a substitution of glycine to serine in the H5 region of a G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channel gene (GIRK2). By studying mutant GIRK2 weaver homomultimeric channels and heteromultimeric channels comprised of GIRK2 weaver and GIRK1 in Xenopus oocytes, we found that GIRK2 weaver homomultimeric channels lose their(More)
The rewarding effect of drugs of abuse is mediated by activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which is inhibited by putative anti-craving compounds. Interestingly, different GABA(B) receptor agonists can exert similarly opposing effects on the reward pathway, but the cellular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we found that the coupling efficacy(More)
Banbury Conference on Genetic Background in Mice* identity of the genetic elements governing these other factors (modifiers) is usually unknown, it is important to keep them constant when evaluating the impact of a Mouse mutants derived by targeted mutagenesis in em-mutation. Only if the same genetic background is used bryonic stem (ES) cells offer many(More)
Acetylcholine released during parasympathetic stimulation of the vagal nerve slows the heart rate through the activation of muscarinic receptors and subsequent opening of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel. The activation of these muscarinic potassium channels is mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein).(More)
Agonists of GABA(B) receptors exert a bi-directional effect on the activity of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area, which can be explained by the fact that coupling between GABA(B) receptors and G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels is significantly weaker in DA neurons than in GABA neurons. Thus, low concentrations(More)
Activation of G protein-gated K+ channels by G protein-coupled receptors contributes to parasympathetic regulation of heart rate in the atrium and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the peripheral and central nervous system. Having found that G beta gamma activates the cloned GIRK1 channel, we now report evidence for direct binding of G beta gamma to(More)
Many neurotransmitters and hormones signal by stimulating G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors (GPCRs), which activate G proteins and their downstream effectors. Whether these signalling proteins diffuse freely within the plasma membrane is not well understood. Recent studies have suggested that direct protein-protein interactions exist between(More)