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Several families of transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins contain retention motifs in their cytoplasmically exposed tails. Mutational analyses demonstrated that two lysines positioned three and four or five residues from the C-terminus represent the retention motif. The introduction of a lysine preceding the lysine that occurs three residues(More)
The adenoviral transmembrane E3/19K glycoprotein is a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that the last six amino acid residues of the 15-membered cytoplasmic tail are necessary and sufficient for the ER retention. These residues can be transplanted onto the cytoplasmic tail of other membrane-bound proteins such that ER residency is(More)
A COOH-terminal double lysine motif maintains type I transmembrane proteins in the ER. Proteins tagged with this motif, eg., CD8/E19 and CD4/E19, rapidly receive post-translational modifications characteristic of the intermediate compartment and partially colocalized to this organelle. These proteins also received modifications characteristic of the Golgi(More)
The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the alphabeta T cell receptor (TCR). The x-ray structure of the complete extracellular fragment of a glycosylated alphabeta TCR was determined at 2.5 angstroms, and its(More)
CD1 represents a third lineage of antigen-presenting molecules that are distantly related to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the immune system. The crystal structure of mouse CD1d1, corresponding to human CD1d, at 2.8 resolution shows that CD1 adopts an MHC fold that is more closely related to that of MHC class I than to that of MHC(More)
The genes of the polymorphic HLA-DR molecules are located within the human major histocompatibility complex. We have studied the HLA-DR genes of an HLA homozygous individual typed to be DR4, Dw4, and DRw53. Fourteen cosmid and phage clones from genomic libraries were isolated and grouped into three clusters comprising a total of 165 kilobases. These(More)
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules interact with self and foreign peptides of diverse amino acid sequences yet exhibit distinct allele-specific selectivity for peptide binding. The structures of the peptide-binding specificity pockets (subsites) in the groove of murine H-2Kb as well as human histocompatibility antigen class I molecules(More)
Alzheimer's disease pathology is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques and the loss of cholinergic neurons in the brain. The underlying mechanisms leading to these events are unclear, but the 42-amino acid beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta(1-42)) is involved. Immunohistochemical studies on human sporadic Alzheimer's disease brains demonstrate that(More)
MHC class I H-2Ld complexed with peptide QL9 (or p2Ca) is a high-affinity alloantigen for the 2C TCR. We used the crystal structure of H-2Ld with a mixture of bound peptides at 3.1 A to construct a model of the allogeneic 2C-Ld/QL9 complex for comparison with the syngeneic 2C-Kb/dEV8 structure. A prominent ridge on the floor of the Ld peptide-binding(More)
Differential gene expression occurs in the process of development, maintenance, injury, and death of unicellular as well as complex organisms. Differentially expressed genes are usually identified by comparing steady-state mRNA concentrations. Electronic subtraction (ES), subtractive hybridization (SH), and differential display (DD) are methods commonly(More)