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BACKGROUND & AIMS NOD2/CARD15 was recently identified as the first gene underlying Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility. Monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (infliximab) are a potent treatment for CD, with about 70% of patients responding. It is not clear which factors influence treatment outcome. We assessed whether variants in(More)
Intestinal schistosomiasis is accompanied by motility-related dysfunctions but the underlying mechanisms are not well-known. Therefore, the presence and effects on intestinal contractility of somatostatin (SOM) and its receptor, SSTR2A, were investigated in the ileum of normal and infected mice. The distribution of SOM and SSTR2A was visualized using(More)
In Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice, gastrointestinal transit was measured in vivo and the neuromuscular function of longitudinal muscle strips of inflamed ileum and noninflamed gastric fundus was assessed in vitro. Eight weeks after infection, the ileal wall was acutely inflamed, as shown by a mucosal inflammatory infiltrate, leading to an increase in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Reliable noninvasive tools are needed for staging nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Published scoring systems have not been validated in prospective assessments of unselected patients. We aimed to identify factors that predicted development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a large group of overweight or obese patients and(More)
The incidence of atopic and immune diseases has dramatically increased during the second half of the twentieth century. This has been attributed to improved sanitation and hygiene with reduced exposure to infections. The concept of this hygiene hypothesis is not new, and is currently used to explain the increasing incidence of a wide area of diseases.(More)
Inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) nerves are thought to be important in the autonomic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and other organ systems. The nature of their neurotransmitter is still debated. Speculation that nitric oxide (NO), formed from L-arginine in neuronal structures and other cells, could act as a neurotransmitter, is(More)
OBJECTIVE Infliximab is an effective treatment for refractory or fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD). However, about 30% of patients do not respond to infliximab for unknown reasons. Identifying predictive factors of response is important for optimizing clinical management and for better understanding infliximab's mechanisms of action. The aim of this study(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Crohn's disease, characterised by chronic T helper 1 (Th1) inflammation and dysmotility of the gut, is most prevalent in developed countries. Parasitic infections are most prevalent in developing countries and induce a T helper 2 (Th2) immune response. We hypothesised that this Th2 immune response protects against Th1 gut inflammation.(More)
1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system. We investigated the role of VIP1/PACAP receptors in postoperative ileus in rats. 2. Different degrees of inhibition of the gastrointestinal transit, measured by the migration of Evans blue, were achieved by skin incision, laparotomy or laparotomy plus(More)
Sepsis is an inflammatory condition that is associated with reduced propulsive gastrointestinal motility (ileus). A therapeutic option to treat sepsis is to promote intestinal propulsion preventing bacterial stasis, overgrowth and translocation. Recent evidence suggests that anti-oxidants improve sepsis-induced ileus. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic(More)