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This work investigates the polyanion initiated gelation process in fabricating chitosan-TPP (tripolyphosphate) nanoparticles in the size range of 100-250 nm intended to be used as carriers for the delivery of gene or protein macromolecules. It demonstrates that ionic gelation of cationic chitosan molecules offers a flexible and easily controllable process(More)
In photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light causes selective destruction of microbial cells. The ability of light-drug combinations to kill microorganisms has been known for over 100 years. However, it is only recently with the beginning of the search for alternative treatments for(More)
METHODS In this study we determined, for the first time, the ability of microorganisms to traverse microneedle-induced holes using two different in vitro models. RESULTS When employing Silescol membranes, the numbers of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis crossing the membranes were an order of magnitude lower when the(More)
Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a charged, hydrophilic molecule that penetrates poorly through cellular structures. This property has been implicated in the poor clinical response of non-superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Release of ALA hydrochloride from a 20% w/w formulation was found to be incomplete and that(More)
In recent years, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has become a widespread agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In nucleated cells, ALA is converted into the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). A major drawback of ALA is its low bioavailability. As a result, high doses of ALA must be administered in order to reach clinically relevant levels of(More)
Photodynamic therapy of superficial neoplastic lesions generally uses high aminolevulinic acid (ALA) loadings (20%, w/w) in emulsion-type systems under occlusion. This approach makes ALA dosing difficult and delivery to demanding areas, such as the vulval, perineal and perianal skin, are seldom possible. This work evaluated a water-soluble bioadhesive(More)
Photodynamic therapy of deep or nodular skin tumours is currently limited by the poor tissue penetration of the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). In this study, silicon microneedle arrays were used, for the first time, to enhance skin penetration of ALA in vitro and in vivo. Puncturing excised murine skin with 6 x 7 arrays of microneedles 270(More)
BACKGROUND A number of reports have suggested that many of the problems currently associated with the use of microneedle (MN) arrays for transdermal drug delivery could be addressed by using drug-loaded MN arrays prepared by moulding hot melts of carbohydrate materials. METHODS In this study, we explored the processing, handling, and storage of MN arrays(More)
Transdermal drug delivery offers certain advantages over conventional oral or parenteral administration. However, the excellent barrier function of the skin, accomplished almost entirely by the stratum corneum, restricts the number of drug substances that can be administered transdermally to those with very specific physicochemical properties. Several(More)