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Several of the thousands of human long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been functionally characterized; however, potential roles for lncRNAs in somatic tissue differentiation remain poorly understood. Here we show that a 3.7-kilobase lncRNA, terminal differentiation-induced ncRNA (TINCR), controls human epidermal differentiation by a post-transcriptional(More)
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) mediates homeostatic growth inhibition in the epidermis, and a loss of NF-kappaB function promotes proliferation and oncogenesis. To identify mechanisms responsible for these effects, we impaired NF-kappaB action in the epidermis by three different genetic approaches, including conditional NF-kappaB blockade. In each case,(More)
Sequence-specific DNA binding activators of gene transcription may be assisted by SWI2 (SNF2), which contains a DNA-dependent ATPase domain. We have isolated a human complementary DNA encoding a 205K nuclear protein, BRG1, that contains extensive homology to SWI2 and Drosophila brahma. We report here that a SWI2/BRG1 chimera with the DNA-dependent ATPase(More)
Dimerization among transcription factors has become a recurrent theme in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF-1 alpha) is a homeodomain-containing protein that functions as a dimer. A dimerization cofactor of HNF-1 alpha (DCoH) was identified that displayed a restricted tissue distribution and did not bind to(More)
CHROMATIN structure can affect the transcriptional activity of eukaryotic structural genes by blocking access of sequence-specific activator proteins (activators) to their promoter-binding sites. For example, the DNA-binding domain of the yeast GAL4 protein interacts very poorly with nucleosome cores compared with naked DNA2 (and see below), and binding of(More)
The highly homologous kinases, Mek1 and Mek2, act downstream of Ras and Raf to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mi-togen-activated protein kinases. In epidermis, Ras and Raf promote hy-perplasia; however, they act on multiple Mek-independent effectors, and the extent to which Meks can mediate these effects is unknown. To address this, we(More)
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) binds several cellular proteins involved in cell cycle progression. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that RB bound specifically to the protein BRG1. BRG1 shares extensive sequence similarity to Drosophila brahma, an activator of homeotic gene expression, and the yeast transcriptional activator(More)
The nuclear factor NF-kappaB and oncogenic Ras can alter proliferation in epidermis, the most common site of human cancer. These proteins are implicated in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma in mice, however, the potential effects of altering their function are uncertain. Whereas inhibition of NF-kappaB enhances apoptosis in certain tumours, blockade of(More)
Progenitor cells maintain self-renewing tissues throughout life by sustaining their capacity for proliferation while suppressing cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. DNA methylation provides a potential epigenetic mechanism for the cellular memory needed to preserve the somatic progenitor state through repeated cell divisions. DNA methyltransferase(More)
Stratified epithelium displays an equilibrium between proliferation and cell cycle arrest, a balance that is disrupted in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation appears sufficient to induce BCC, however, the way it does so is unknown. Shh-induced epidermal hyperplasia is accompanied by continued cell proliferation in normally(More)