Paul A. Gunning

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The purpose of this study was to produce a well-characterised electrospun polystyrene scaffold which could be used routinely for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture experimentation. A linear relationship (p<0.01) between three principal process variables (applied voltage, working distance and polymer concentration) and fibre diameter was reliably(More)
Previous mechanical studies using algae have concentrated on cell extension and growth using creep-type experiments, but there appears to be no published study of their failure properties. The mechanical strength of single large internode cell walls (up to 2 mm diameter and 100 mm in length) of the charophyte (giant alga) Chara corallina was determined by(More)
The displacement of the proteins (beta-lactoglobulin and beta-casein) from an air-water interface by the nonionic (Tween 20 and Tween 60) and ionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and lyso-phosphatidylcholine-lauroyl) surfactants has been visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface structure has been sampled by the use(More)
Although the route of sensitization to food allergens is still the subject of debate, it is generally accepted the gut immune system plays a pivotal role. However, hitherto the transport of allergens across the normal, pre-sensitized gut epithelium remained largely unknown. Our aim was to identify the route through which protein bodies and soluble proteins(More)
The growth rates and yields of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica were determined in liquid culture media, and in model oil-in-water emulsions that contained 30, 70 or 83% (v/v) hexadecane. In emulsions with a mean droplet size of 2 microns containing 83% (v/v) hexadecane, the growth of both organisms resulted in decreased yields.(More)
Methods are presented for investigating the site and form of growth of bacteria in model oil-in-water emulsions and in dairy cream. Following growth of the bacteria, the continuous aqueous phase is gelled using agarose and the oil phase removed using a mixture of chloroform and methanol. Using this method, the authors have found that Listeria monocytogenes,(More)
The distribution of micro-organisms in mature Serra, a traditional Portuguese cheese made from unpasteurised ewes' milk without added starter culture, was examined by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Four populations of micro-organisms were recognized according to their position within the cheese: (i) those present as apparently axenic colonies(More)
The effects of water content and temperature variation on the release of flavor components into the headspace over flavors, encapsulated by an extrusion process, in low water content carbohydrate matrixes is studied. The largest amounts of release occurred when the matrix was above its glass transition temperature, whether this was due to increased water(More)
Poly(d,l)-lactide (PDLLA) homopolymer, with an average molecular weight of 20,000 daltons, was produced by the ring-opening polymerization of d,l-lactide in the presence of SnCl(2).2H(2)O as the catalyst. The PDLLA sponges loaded with chloramphenicol were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique. The drug loadings achieved were 14.84 and 25.23 mg for the(More)