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The precise identification of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) responsible for productive clinical infection could be instrumental in elucidating the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and in designing effective vaccines. Here, we developed a mathematical model of random viral evolution and, together with phylogenetic tree construction, used it to(More)
Induction of broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies is a high priority for AIDS vaccine development but one that has proven difficult to be achieved. While most immunogens generate antibodies that neutralize a subset of T-cell-line-adapted strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none so far have generated a potent, broadly(More)
Establishing a CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune correlate of protection in HIV disease is crucial to the development of vaccines designed to generate cell-mediated immunity. Historically, neither the quantity nor breadth of the HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response has correlated conclusively with protection. Here, we assess the quality of the HIV-specific(More)
Many immune correlates of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
The importance of CD8+ T-cell responses in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been demonstrated, yet few studies have been able to correlate these responses with markers of HIV-1 disease progression. This study measured cell-mediated immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from 27(More)
In a study of 114 epidemiologically linked Zambian transmission pairs, we evaluated the impact of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I)-associated amino acid polymorphisms, presumed to reflect cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape in Gag and Nef of the virus transmitted from the chronically infected donor, on the plasma viral load (VL) in matched recipients(More)
Certain histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are associated with improved clinical outcomes for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the mechanisms for their effects remain undefined. An early CD8(+) T-cell escape mutation in the dominant HLA-B57-restricted Gag epitope TW10 (TSTLQEQIGW) has been shown to(More)
We describe a mathematical model and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of viral evolution during acute infection. We consider both synchronous and asynchronous processes of viral infection of new target cells. The model enables an assessment of the expected sequence diversity in new HIV-1 infections originating from a single transmitted viral strain, estimation(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the mechanisms underlying the differential targeting of T-cell responses during HIV-1 disease progression. DESIGN We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HIV specific CD8 T-cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from 21 subjects with well characterized acute or early infection and 88 subjects with(More)