Paul A. Fowler

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CONTEXT Maternal cigarette smoking during gestation increases cryptorchidism and hypospadias and reduces testis size and fertility in sons by unknown mechanisms. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine whether maternal smoking is linked with changes in male human fetal endocrinology, testis gene expression, and liver concentrations of(More)
Intra-abdominal temperature-sensitive radio transmitters were used to collect more than 350 sets of body temperature (T b ) data from 23 captive adult hedgehogs over a 3-year period. Each data set comprised measurements made every 1/2 h for 24-h periods. Between 20 and 60 such data sets were recorded every calendar month, and a total of 17400 measurements(More)
Evidence from several laboratories suggests that the ovaries of many species produce a non-steroidal factor called gonadotrophin surge-inhibiting or attenuating factor (GnSIF) which may regulate the response of the pituitary to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and as such, may modulate the timing and/or amplitude of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge.(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of aerobic respiration and metabolism. Mammalian cells have evolved a variety of enzymatic mechanisms to control ROS production, one of the central elements in signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Antioxidants also ensure defenses against(More)
Information on the regulation of steroid hormone receptors and their distinct functions within the human endometrial epithelium is largely unavailable. We have immortalized human primary endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from a normal proliferative phase endometrium by stably transfecting the catalytic subunit (hTERT) of the human telomerase(More)
Maternal serum concentrations of inhibin-A, inhibin-B, activin-A, activin-AB, pro-alphaC-related inhibin forms, total follistatin, steroids and gonadotrophins were measured longitudinally in six normal singleton pregnancies. Maternal venous blood was collected randomly during a spontaneous follicular phase prior to donor insemination, at 5, 7, 9, 11, 16,(More)
The main objective of this study was to determine whether activin A concentrations in peripheral blood fluctuate during the normal human menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected longitudinally from five regularly cycling volunteers (22-30 yr) throughout a spontaneous menstrual cycle and cross-sectionally from normal pregnant women(More)
Women undergoing IVF are routinely subjected to one or more tests of ovarian reserve. The results of these tests are also being extrapolated to women attending infertility clinics and those planning to delay childbearing. This debate examines the predictive power of currently available tests of ovarian reserve and questions the value of subjecting women to(More)
Testicular descent as a prerequisite for the production of mature spermatozoa and normal external genitalia morphogenesis, and therefore facilitating copulation and internal fertilization, are essential developmental steps in reproduction of vertebrate species. Cryptorchidism, the failure of testis descent, and feminization of external genitalia in the(More)
CONTEXT Primordial follicle formation dictates the maximal potential female reproductive capacity and establishes the ovarian reserve. Currently, little is known about this process in the human. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to identify genes associated with the onset of human fetal primordial follicle formation in morphologically normal human(More)