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It has been argued that minimization of metabolic-energy costs is a primary determinant of gait selection in terrestrial animals. This view is based predominantly on data from humans and horses, which have been shown to choose the most economical gait (walking, running, galloping) for any given speed. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic(More)
Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified(More)
We perform local or microrheological measurements on microtubule solutions, as well as composite networks. The viscoelastic properties of microtubules as reported from two-point microrheology agree with the macroscopic measurement at high frequencies, but appear to show a discrepancy at low frequencies, at time scales on the order of a second. A composite(More)
We present point contact spectroscopy (PCS) data for junctions between a normal metal and the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Pr(2-x)CexCuO4 (PCCO). For the underdoped compositions of this cuprate ( x approximately 0.13) we observe a peak in the conductance-voltage characteristics of the point contact junctions. The shape and magnitude of this peak(More)
The debate about how early hominids walked may be characterised as two competing hypotheses: They moved with a fully upright (FU) gait, like modern humans, or with a bent-hip, bent-knee (BK) gait, like apes. Both have assumed that this bipedalism was almost exclusively on land, in trees or a combination of the two. Recent findings favoured the FU hypothesis(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical adaptations linked to economical locomotion in cursorial bipeds. We addressed this question by comparing mass-matched humans and avian bipeds (ostriches), which exhibit marked differences in limb structure and running economy. We hypothesized that the nearly 50 per cent lower energy cost of running in(More)
Sixteen depressed patients underwent 1- and 2-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in balanced order. Serum cortisol concentrations at all time points were significantly higher after the 1-mg dose. Nine patients were nonsuppressors after the 1-mg dose, and 4 after the 2-mg dose.
Recently, we have shown that combining mouth rinsing with the ingestion of a 2 mM quinine solution immediately before a 30-s cycling sprint significantly improves performance. However, the strong bitterness of such a solution produces an unpleasant taste and evokes nausea at higher concentrations. Given the possibility that mouth rinsing with quinine(More)
Studies have reported that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution improves cycling time-trial performance compared with rinsing with a placebo solution. However, no studies have compared the effect of mouth rinsing with a no-mouth-rinse control condition. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a CHO mouth rinse with those of a(More)