Paul A. Fournier

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It has been argued that minimization of metabolic-energy costs is a primary determinant of gait selection in terrestrial animals. This view is based predominantly on data from humans and horses, which have been shown to choose the most economical gait (walking, running, galloping) for any given speed. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic(More)
The alleged high net energy cost of running and low net energy cost of walking in humans have played an important role in the interpretation of the evolution of human bipedalism and the biomechanical determinants of the metabolic cost of locomotion. This study re-explores how the net metabolic energy cost of running and walking (J kg(-1) m(-1)) in humans(More)
Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the response of blood glucose levels to intermittent high-intensity exercise (IHE) and moderate-intensity exercise (MOD) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seven healthy individuals with type 1 diabetes were tested on two separate occasions, during which either a 30-min MOD or IHE protocol was performed.(More)
Previously, the decline in glycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes has been shown to be less with intermittent high-intensity exercise (IHE) compared with continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MOD) despite the performance of a greater amount of total work. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this lesser decline in glycemia can(More)
AIM The significant deterioration of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance during pregnancy can have serious health implications for both the pregnant woman and her baby. Although it is well established that regular exercise benefits insulin sensitivity in the nonpregnant population, the effect on glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women is not known.(More)
There is evidence that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution can improve endurance performance. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a CHO mouth rinse can improve the performance of a maximal sprint effort. Fourteen competitive male cyclists (64.0±5.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (mean±SD)) each completed the following 5-s mouth rinse(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical adaptations linked to economical locomotion in cursorial bipeds. We addressed this question by comparing mass-matched humans and avian bipeds (ostriches), which exhibit marked differences in limb structure and running economy. We hypothesized that the nearly 50 per cent lower energy cost of running in(More)
Studies have reported that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution improves cycling time-trial performance compared with rinsing with a placebo solution. However, no studies have compared the effect of mouth rinsing with a no-mouth-rinse control condition. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a CHO mouth rinse with those of a(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a short maximal sprint can provide another means to counter the rapid fall in glycemia associated with moderate-intensity exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes and therefore decrease the risk of early postexercise hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the study, seven male subjects with type 1 diabetes(More)